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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Metallic Forging Using Electrical Flow as an Alternative to Warm/Hot Working

[+] Author and Article Information
Timothy A. Perkins, Thomas J. Kronenberger, John T. Roth

SEET–Mechanical Engineering, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, Erie, PA 16563

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(1), 84-94 (Jun 14, 2006) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2386164 History: Received September 07, 2005; Revised June 14, 2006

Manufacturing processes (e.g., forging, rolling, extrusion, and forming) rely on heat to reduce the forces associated with fabricating parts. However, due to the negative implications associated with hot working, another more efficient means of applying energy is desired. This paper investigates material property changes of various metals (aluminum, copper, iron, and titanium based alloys) in response to the flow of electricity. Theory involving electromigration and electroplasticity is examined and the implications thereof are analyzed. It is shown that, using electrical current, flow stresses are reduced, resulting in a lower specific energy for open-die forging. It is also shown that an applied electrical current increases the forgeability of materials, allowing greater deformation prior to cracking. Moreover, the changes caused by the flow of electricity are significantly greater than those explained by resistive heating. Additionally, elastic recovery is decreased when using electrical flow during deformation. Finally, for most materials, these effects were dependent on strain rate. Overall, this work demonstrates that substantial increases in the forgeability of metals are achieved by deforming the material while applying an electrical current. These improvements exceed those achieved through comparable increases in workpiece temperature and demonstrate that this method provides a viable alternative to warm/hot working.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Compression fixture setup

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7075 T6 aluminum stress strain curves

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2024 T351 aluminum stress strain curves

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C11000 copper stress strain curves

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304 stainless steel stress strain curves

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A2 tool steel stress strain curves

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Titanium stress strain curves

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464 naval brass strength reduction

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6Al-4V titanium strength reduction

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Current density versus current amplitude

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Radial temperature profile of undeformed specimen

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6061 T6511 aluminum stress strain curves

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2024 T4 aluminum stress strain curves

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Isothermal testing with transient temperature

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360 yellow brass stress strain curves

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Radial temperature profile of deformed specimen

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Electrical specimen transient temperature profile

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Electrical specimen temperature profile

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Isothermal testing

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464 naval brass stress strain curves

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C11000 copper 76.2mm∕min stress strain curves

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6061 T6511 aluminum 76.2mm∕min stress strain curves

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464 naval brass 76.2mm∕min stress strain curves

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Change in energy due to electricity

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