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TECHNICAL PAPERS

# Dynamics and Stability of Plunge Milling Operations

[+] Author and Article Information
Jeong Hoon Ko

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 Canadajhko5889@yahoo.com

Yusuf Altintas1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 Canadaaltintas@mech.ubc.ca

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(1), 32-40 (Jul 03, 2006) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2383070 History: Received July 15, 2005; Revised July 03, 2006

## Abstract

Plunge milling operations are used to remove excess material rapidly in roughing operations. The cutter is fed in the direction of the spindle axis which has the highest structural rigidity. This paper presents a comprehensive model of plunge milling process by considering rigid body motion of the cutter, and three translational and torsional vibrations of the structure. The time domain simulation model allows prediction of cutting forces, torque, and vibrations while considering tool setting errors and time varying process parameters. The stability law is formulated as a four-dimensional eigenvalue problem, and the stability lobes are predicted directly with analytical solution in frequency domain. Time domain prediction of cutting forces and vibrations, as well as the frequency domain and chatter stability solution are verified with a series of plunge milling experiments.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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## Figures

Figure 1

Plunge milling process configuration. (a) Plunge milling process for making large hole. (b) Plunge milling process to enlarge a hole. (c) Intermittent plunge milling process to make vertical wall or conduct rough cutting.

Figure 2

Geometry and coordinates of a sample plunge mill. Cutter parameters: D1=20mm, D2=25mm, l=5.5mm, αf=10deg, ψr=10deg, Clf=5deg (Sandvik Cutter Part No. R210-025A20-09M). (a) Geometry of a plunge mill. (b) Angular position of each tooth.

Figure 3

Dynamic uncut chip thickness model in plunge milling

Figure 4

Dynamic chip thickness produced by lateral and axial vibrations. (a) Influence of lateral (x,y) vibrations. (b) Influence of axial (z) vibrations. (c) Influence of torsional vibrations.

Figure 5

Comparison of the predicted and measured cutting forces under chatter-free cutting conditions. Work material: Al7050-T7451. Cutting configuration of Fig. 1. (a) Cutting conditions: spindle speed =1000rpm, feed per tooth =0.05mm∕tooth, and radial depth of cut =4mm. (b) Cutting conditions: spindle speed =1000rpm, feed per tooth =0.125mm∕tooth, and radial depth of cut =3mm.

Figure 6

Experimental verification of numerical and analytical stability lobes in plunge milling. Cutting conditions: full immersion plunge milling mode (i.e., Fig. 1), c=0.075mm∕rev∕tooth, and tool: Fig. 2.

Figure 7

Time domain simulation results for unstable cutting condition A as shown in Fig. 6. Cutting conditions: full immersion plunge milling mode (i.e., Fig. 1), spindle speed =16,000rpm, feed per tooth =0.075mm∕tooth, and radial depth of cut =5mm. (a) Predicted cutting forces for ten revolutions. (b) Predicted torsion force Tθ. (c) Cutter deflection in Z direction. (d) FFT of the predicted Fz.

Figure 8

Predicted cutting forces for cutting condition B in Fig. 6. Cutting conditions: full immersion plunge milling mode (i.e., Fig. 1), spindle speed =17142rpm, feed per tooth =0.075mm∕tooth, and radial depth of cut =5.75mm.

## Errata

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