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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Laser Forming of Varying Thickness Plate—Part I: Process Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Peng Cheng

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027pc2052@columbia.edu

Yajun Fan, Jie Zhang, Y. Lawrence Yao

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

David P. Mika, Wenwu Zhang, Michael Graham, Jud Marte, Marshall Jones

 Global Research Center, General Electric Company, Nishayuna, NY 12309

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 128(3), 634-641 (Jul 11, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2172280 History: Received January 14, 2005; Revised July 11, 2005

High-intensity laser beams can be used to heat and bend metal plates, but the mechanisms of the laser forming (LF) process are not well understood or precisely controllable. The objective of the National Institute of Standards and Technology sponsored project “Laser Forming of Complex Structures” is to develop technologies for a controllable, repeatable laser forming process that shapes and reshapes a wide range of complex structures such as compressor airfoils that are complex 3D geometries with large thickness variation. In order to apply laser forming to complex 3D geometries, the process analysis and process synthesis (design process parameters such as scanning paths and heating conditions for a desired shape) of LF of varying thickness plate are conducted in this paper. In this study, experimental, numerical, and analytical methods are used to investigate the bending mechanism and parametric effects on the deformation characteristics of varying thickness plates. A transition of the laser forming mechanism was found to occur along the scanning path when the thickness varies. The effect of scanning speed, beam spot size, and multiple scanning on the degree of bending was investigated. The proposed analytical model can predict the bending angle and angle variations for laser forming of varying thickness plate.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Laser formed varying thickness plate showing coordinate system (scanned along the centerline, plate size:80×80mm, power=1000W, scanning speed=20mm∕s, beam spot size=8mm, number of scans=10)

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Figure 2

Bending angle variation of varying thickness plate and uniform-thickness (h=2mm) plate along the scanning direction

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Figure 3

Comparison of the temperature distribution along the scanning path between varying thickness plate and equivalent-uniform thickness (h=2mm) plate

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Figure 4

Comparison of the plastic strain normal to the heating direction between varying thickness plate and equivalent-uniform thickness (h=2mm) plate

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Figure 5

The distribution of plastic strain in thickness direction along the scanning path

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Figure 6

Strain distribution through thickness, showing the definition of bending and in-plane strain

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Figure 7

Distribution of in-plane strain and ratio of bending strain to in-plane strain

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Figure 8

Experimental result of varying thickness plate scanned along the diagonal line (plate size:80×80mm, linearly varying thickness; power=1000w, scanning speed=20mm∕s, beam spot size=8mm, number of scans=10)

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Figure 9

Bending angle variation along the scanning path when scanned along the diagonal line

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Figure 10

Comparison of peak temperature along the scanning path between varying and equivalent-uniform thickness plate when scanned along diagonal line

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Figure 11

Bending deformation of varying-thickness coupon under various beam spot sizes (power=1000W, scanning speed=20mm∕s, single scan along the centerline)

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Figure 12

Temperature distribution of varying thickness coupon under various beam spot sizes (power=1000W, d=4mm and 8mm, single scan along the centerline)

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Figure 13

Bending deformation of varying thickness coupon under various scanning speeds (power=1000w, spot size=8mm, single scan along the centerline)

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Figure 14

The relationship between bending angle and number of scans (power=1000W, scanning speed=20mm∕s, spot size=8mm)

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Figure 15

Temperature field at the cross section along the scanning path of varying thickness plate (a) obtained by FEM, and (b) obtained by the analytical method (under the condition of power=1000W, V=20mm∕s, the coordinate system refers to Fig. 1)

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Figure 16

Schematic of the mechanical model

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Figure 17

Bending angle variations with thickness under different scanning speed (a) obtained by FEM, and (b) obtained by the proposed model

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