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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Modeling of Cutting Temperature in Near Dry Machining

[+] Author and Article Information
Kuan-Ming Li

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405gtg709i@mail.gatech.edu

Steven Y. Liang

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405steven.liang@me.gatech.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 128(2), 416-424 (Oct 13, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2162907 History: Received June 05, 2005; Revised October 13, 2005

Near dry machining refers to the condition of applying cutting fluid at relatively low flow rates, on the order of 2100mlh, as opposed to the conventional way of using either a large quantity, typically of about 10lmin, as in wet machining; or no fluid at all, as in dry machining. One important expectation of applying fluids is to control the cutting temperature, which is an important parameter for tool life and part dimensional accuracy in machining processes. In this context, the understanding of cutting temperature variation corresponding to the near dry cooling and lubrication is of interest. This paper models the temperature distributions in the cutting zone under through-the-tool near dry cooling condition. The heat source method is implemented to estimate the cutting temperatures on the tool-chip interface and the tool-workpiece interface. For the temperature rise in the chip, the effects of the primary heat source and the secondary heat source were modeled as moving heat sources. For the temperature rise in the tool, the effects of the secondary heat source, the heat loss due to cooling, and the rubbing heat source due to the tool flank wear, were modeled as stationary heat sources. For the temperature rise in the workpiece, the primary heat source, the heat loss due to cooling, and the rubbing heat source due to the tool flank wear were modeled as moving heat sources. The model describes the dual effects of air-oil mixture in near dry machining in terms of the reduction of cutting temperature through the cooling effect, as well as the reduction of heat generation through the lubricating effect. To pursue model calibration and validation, embedded thermocouple temperature measurement in cutting medium carbon steels with uncoated carbide insets were carried out. The model predictions and experimental measurements show reasonable agreement and results suggest that the combination of the cooling and the lubricating effects in near dry machining reduces the cutting temperatures on the tool-chip interface by about 8% with respect to dry machining. Moreover, the cutting speed remains a dominant factor in cutting temperature compared with the feed and the depth of cut in near dry machining processes.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

The through-the-tool hole and the thermocouple location

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Figure 2

Heat sources and heat losses for the 2D model in near dry turning

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Figure 3

Schematics of the moving heat source model of the primary heat source for the chip

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Figure 4

Schematic of the moving heat source model of the secondary heat source for the chip

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Figure 5

Schematic of the stationary heat source model of the secondary heat source for the tool

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Figure 6

Schematic of the stationary heat source model of the heat loss for the tool

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Figure 7

Heat sources and heat losses for the 2D model in near dry turning with the tool wear effect

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Figure 8

Schematic of the moving heat source model of the primary heat source for the workpiece

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Figure 9

Schematic of the moving heat source model of the rubbing heat source for the workpiece

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Figure 10

Schematic of the moving heat source model of the heat loss for the workpiece

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Figure 11

Temperature comparison between predicted values and measured values at thermocouple location for sharp tool

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Figure 12

Temperature comparison between predicted values and measured values at thermocouple location for worn tool

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Figure 13

Temperature comparison of predicted values at thermocouple location between sharp tool and for worn tool

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Figure 14

Temperature comparison of predicted values between near dry machining and dry machining on the tool-chip interface for sharp tool

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Figure 15

Temperature comparison of predicted values between near dry machining and dry machining on the tool-chip interface for worn tool

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Figure 16

Temperature comparison of predicted values between near dry machining and dry machining on the tool-workpiece interface for worn tool

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Figure 17

The average heat partition rates (B1) comparison between near dry machining and dry machining on the tool-chip interface for sharp tool

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Figure 18

Tool-chip interface temperature trend for sharp tool with respect to cutting conditions

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Figure 19

Tool-chip interface temperature trend for worn tool with respect to cutting conditions

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Figure 20

Tool-workpiece interface temperature trend for worn tool with respect to cutting conditions

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