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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Analysis of the Laser Droplet Formation Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Tadej Kokalj1

Laboratory of Synergetics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Sloveniatadej.kokalj@fs.uni-lj.si

Jure Klemenčič, Peter Mužič, Igor Grabec, Edvard Govekar

Laboratory of Synergetics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

1

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 128(1), 307-314 (Jul 11, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2120780 History: Received January 19, 2005; Revised July 11, 2005

In this paper, a novel laser droplet formation process (LDFP) from a metal wire is investigated. The process consists of the formation of a molten pendant droplet and its detachment, which are both unstable and influenced by numerous process parameters. The goal of the investigation is to specify the main process parameters and the values that provide for stable and repeatable process. Based on theoretical and experimental consideration of LDFP, a methodology for estimation of process control parameters is proposed. Estimation of the parameters is demonstrated on examples of deposited droplets of nickel and tin-alloy wires. Experimental results on tin-alloy wire indicate that the problem of splashes on the substrate is still present, while those on nickel reveal an acceptable formation of droplets.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 2

(a) Variables utilized in the static force balance analysis; (b) Scheme of the laser beam keyhole

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Figure 4

Scheme of the experimental setup. ∗ denotes laser beams with the power P(t)∕3. Ps(t) denotes the measured laser pulse signal and trig denotes triging signal.

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Figure 5

(a) Position of a laser beam before application of a laser pulse; hs is displacement of the wire during the laser pulse duration time. (b) A proper position of the laser beam with respect to the pendant droplet before the application of detachment pulse.

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Figure 6

Examples of three laser pulses of various time durations (a) and various amplitudes (b). The corresponding velocity profile v(t) is indicated by the dashed line. The final states after solidification of a nickel droplet are shown by the photos on the top.

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Figure 7

Examples of three laser pulses of various time durations (a) and various amplitudes (b). The corresponding velocity profile v(t) is indicated by the dashed line. The final states after solidification of a tin-alloy droplet are shown by the photos on the top.

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Figure 8

Entire laser pulse for droplet formation and wire velocity profile v(t) in the case of nickel wire. Variations in the detachment pulse are indicated for three characteristic results.

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Figure 9

Entire laser pulse for droplet formation and wire velocity profile v(t) in the case of tin-alloy wire. Variations in the detachment pulse are indicated for three characteristic results.

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Figure 10

Droplets produced by the pulses in our investigations of LDFP. (a) Nickel droplets on steel substrate, (b) nickel droplets on tin-alloy substrate, (c) tin-alloy droplets on tin-alloy substrate, and (d) tin-alloy droplets on copper substrate.

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Figure 3

A basic pulse form consists of two portions Pp and Pd as suggested by the theoretical consideration of LDFP

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Figure 1

Variables utilized in the heat balance analysis

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