Miniaturized machine tools, referred to as mesoscale machine tools (mMTs) henceforth, have been proposed as a way to manufacture micro/mesoscale mechanical components. A thorough study of the dynamic behavior of the mMT is required for the successful development of its machine structure. This paper demonstrates the development of an mMT, the performance evaluation of its mesoscale milling process, and the characterization of its dynamic behavior. The mMT is developed by using an air turbine spindle and three piezoelectric linear stages, and its volumetric size is . A series of micro/mesoscale milling experiments are conducted, and the performances in the developed mMT testbed are evaluated. The dynamic characteristics of the mMT can be different from those of conventional machine tools because the mMT is a miniaturized structure and comprises different machine components. Therefore, the effect of the miniaturization of a structure on the change of its dynamic behavior, called scaling law of the structural dynamics, is studied numerically and experimentally. The dynamic characteristics of the developed mMT that are estimated from the scaling law of the structural dynamics are much different from those obtained from an experimental modal analysis, and the flexible joints of the developed mMT are mainly responsible for this significant difference. Therefore, the joint dynamics of the mMT are studied by introducing an equivalent lumped parameter model, thus enabling simple identification of the joint dynamics and the effective modification of its critical joints to enhance a machining performance.