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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Machining of Hard-Brittle Materials by a Single Point Tool Under External Hydrostatic Pressure

[+] Author and Article Information
Masahiko Yoshino, Yasufumi Ogawa, Sivanandam Aravindan

Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguroku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 127(4), 837-845 (Feb 10, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2035695 History: Received June 07, 2004; Revised February 10, 2005

This paper reports on the development of a machining device which is capable of carrying out precision machining experiments under external hydrostatic pressure. Machining trials were conducted on hard-brittle materials such as soda glass, quartz glass, silicon and quartz wafers using the newly developed machining device under the externally applied hydrostatic pressures of zero and 400 MPa. The machined traces were analyzed by laser microscope. From the trace profiles, crack ratio and area of cross section of the trace were estimated. The applied hydrostatic pressure enhanced the critical cross sectional area and reduced the cracks and chippings of all the tested materials. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on the machining characteristics of the crystalline and glassy materials are discussed in detail. The mechanism behind the enhancement of ductile-brittle transition by the externally applied hydrostatic pressure is also elucidated by a theoretical model.

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Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Machining device for machining tests under high hydrostatic pressure. Pressure vessel, high pressure oil pump, pressure booster, drain tank, turntable, AC motor, Bridgeman seal , cap, tool stage, handle, AC motor, plug, cap.

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Figure 2

Detail of machining device installed in the chamber. Diamond tool, load cell, slide table (axial direction, driving screw (axial direction), slide table (radial direction), driving screw (radial direction), lever.

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Figure 3

SEM micrograph of the single point diamond tool. Material: Single crystal diamond; rake angle: 0 deg; point angle: 90 deg; clearance angle: 5 deg.

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Figure 4

Example of a machined specimen. (Diameter of the outer circle is about 14 mm.)

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Figure 5

Photographs of grooves and cracks on a soda glass plate generated by the machining test

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Figure 6

Photographs of grooves and cracks on a quartz glass plate generated by the machining test

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Figure 7

Photographs of grooves and cracks on a quartz wafer generated by the machining test

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Figure 8

Photographs of grooves and cracks on a silicon wafer generated by the machining test

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Figure 9

Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the crack ratio in a machining process

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Figure 10

Schematic illustration of micro cracks in a hard-brittle material in a stress field near a tool edge during machining

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Figure 11

Schematic illustration of stress distribution near a tool edge under machining

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Figure 12

Schematic illustration of size distribution of micro cracks in a material

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Figure 13

Relationship between the critical area and KIC2∕σ02

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Figure 14

Relationship between variation of the critical area and KIC2∕σ03

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