Optimal Tool Orientation for Five-Axis Tool-End Machining by Swept Envelope Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
John C. Chiou

Unigraphics Solutions, CAM Division, 10824 Hope Street, Cypress, CA 90630chiou@ugs.com

Y. S. Lee

Department of Industrial Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695yslee@ncsu.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 127(4), 810-818 (Mar 14, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2035698 History: Received June 07, 2004; Revised March 14, 2005

This paper presents a swept envelope approach to determining the optimal tool orientation for five-axis tool-end machining. The swept profile of the cutter is determined based on the tool motion. By analyzing the swept profile against the part geometry, four types of machining errors (local gouge, side gouge, rear gouge, and global collision) are identified. The tool orientation is then corrected to avoid such errors. The cutter’s swept envelope is further constructed by integrating the intermediate swept profiles, and can be applied to NC simulation and verification. This paper analyzes the properties of the swept profile of a general cutter in five-axis tool-end machining. The relation of the swept profile, the part geometry, the tool motion, and the machining errors is developed. Therefore, the error sources can be detected early and prevented during tool path planning. The analytical results indicate that the optimal tool orientation occurs when the curvature of the cutter’s swept profile matches with the curvature of the local part surface. In addition, the optimal cutting direction generally follows the minimum curvature direction. Computer illustrations and example demonstrations are shown in this paper. The results reveal the developed method can accurately determine the optimal tool orientation and efficiently avoid machining errors for five-axis tool-end machining.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Definition of generalized cutter geometry

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Figure 2

Coordinate systems

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Figure 3

Swept volume and complement machined geometry

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Figure 4

Curvatures and osculating plane

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Figure 5

Rear swept profile

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Figure 6

Minimum inclination angle and curvature

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Figure 7

(a) Swept profile when cutting along minimum curvature direction. (b) Swept profile when cutting along 30° direction. (c) Swept profile when cutting along 60° direction. (d) Swept profile when cutting along 90° direction.

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Figure 8

Swept profiles and machining strip width when machining a free-form surface

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Figure 9

Relation of machining width and cutting direction for Machining Potential Field method

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Figure 10

Machining Potential Field (MPF) tool paths




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