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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Formability Analysis of Tailor-Welded Blanks of Different Thickness Ratios

[+] Author and Article Information
L. C. Chan1

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering,  The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Chinamflcchan@inet.polyu.edu.hk

C. H. Cheng, S. M. Chan, T. C. Lee

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering,  The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China

C. L. Chow

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  University of Michigan-Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI

1

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 127(4), 743-751 (Feb 04, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2034518 History: Received May 25, 2004; Revised February 04, 2005

This paper presents a formability analysis of tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) made of cold rolled steel sheets with varying thicknesses. Steel sheets ranging between 0.5 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.7 mm, 0.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.0 mm in thickness were used to produce TWBs of different thickness combinations. The primary objective of this paper is to characterize the effects of thickness ratios on the forming limit diagram (FLD) for a particular type of TWB. The TWBs chosen for the investigation are designed with the weld line located in the center of the specimens perpendicular to the principal strain direction. Nd:YAG laser butt-welding was used to prepare different tailor-made blank specimens for uniaxial tensile tests and Swift tests. The experimental results of the uniaxial tensile test clearly revealed that there were no significant differences between the tensile strengths of TWBs and those of the base metals. After the Swift tests, the formability of TWBs was analyzed in terms of two measures: The forming limit diagram and minimum major strain. The experimental findings indicated that the higher the thickness ratio, the lower the level of the forming limit curve (FLC) and the lower the formability of the TWBs. The findings also show an inverse proportional relationship between thickness ratios and minimum major strains. TWBs with a thickness ratio of close to 1 were found to have a minimum major strain closer to those of base metals. The effects of different thickness ratios on TWBs were further analyzed with a finite element code in a computer-aided engineering package, PAM-STAMP, while the failure criteria of the TWBs in the finite element analysis were addressed by the FLCs which were obtained from the experiments. However, the weld of the TWB in the simulation was simply treated as a thickness step, whereas its heat affected zones were sometimes disregarded, so that the effects of the thickness ratio could be significantly disclosed without the presence of weld zones. The results of the simulation should certainly assist to clarify and explain the effects of different thickness ratios on TWBs.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

A series of tailor-made circular specimens

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Figure 2

Weld line orientation of TWBs

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Figure 3

Deformed tailor-welded specimens of different thickness ratios after uniaxial tensile test

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Figure 4

Tensile strength comparison of TWBs of a thickness ratio of 2 (1.0mm∕0.5mm) with the base metal of thickness 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm

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Figure 5

Tensile strength comparison of TWBs of a thickness ratio of 1.67 (1.0mm∕0.6mm) with the base metal thickness of 0.6 mm and 1.0 mm

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Figure 6

Tensile strength comparison of TWBs of a thickness ratio of 1.25 (1.0mm∕0.8mm) with the base metal of thickness 0.8 mm and 1.0 mm

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Figure 7

Failure type of TWB of a thickness ratio of 2

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Figure 8

Comparing the FLCs of the first group of TWBs with 1 mm base metals

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Figure 9

Comparing the FLC level of TWBs of the second set with 0.7 mm base metals

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Figure 10

Comparing the FLC level of TWBs of the third set with 0.5 mm base metals

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Figure 11

Minimum major strains of TWBs of similar thickness ratios

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Figure 12

Geometrical model of setup for Swift round-bottom cupping test

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Figure 13

Simulation results of failure mode for TWBs with a thickness ratio of 2 (with LDH value)

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Figure 14

Stress concentration on thin side near the step

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Figure 15

LDH of TWBs with different thickness ratios; but with the same mode of deformation

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Figure 16

Experimental LDHs versus TWBs of different thickness ratios and different mode of deformations

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Figure 17

Simulations of LDHs versus TWBs of different thickness ratios and different mode of deformations

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