In this paper, a permeability measurement method using hybrid fiber preforms is presented. The hybrid fiber preform can be composed of different fiber mat types, different numbers of fiber mats of the same type, or both. The computational procedure for permeability based on flow front location and flow time data was derived. This approach was validated by both simulation and experimental studies. The results show that by using this method, permeability values of different fiber mat types or the relationship between permeability and fiber volume fraction (porosity) can be obtained through a single experiment. This permeability measurement method based on hybrid fiber preforms yields compatible measurement accuracies while significantly improving the measurement efficiency. It provides a fast, accurate, and easy-to-use approach for permeability characterization, which is of great significance for the integrated composite product and process development.