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TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Effect of Adhesive Curing Condition on Bonding Strength in Auto Body Assembly

[+] Author and Article Information
Xin Wu, Hongqi Hao

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 127(2), 411-419 (Apr 25, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1870014 History: Received February 20, 2003; Revised July 15, 2004; Online April 25, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Specimens and heat plate used for cure and tear tests
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Temperature and heating rate vs. time for induction heating and cooling, for induction heating at 15 kW full power limit setting
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Two typical load versus displacement curves and the associated fracture modes. A: fracture at the metal-adhesive interface: B: fracture within adhesive layer. (In the box, the area A stands for the no minal area of the lap joint interface.)
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Bonding strength vs peak temperature in induction heating with power control (a) and electric resistance heating with heating rate control (b). Note that the real adhesive temperature was lower than the reported one by 16°C at 178°C, and by 10°C at 80°C, measured directly from the top-outer surface.
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Bonding strength vs holding time at 100°C and at RT
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SEM micrographs of fractured surfaces from a sample cured from induction heating: (a) induction heating to 85°C and failed at 18 MPa; (b) induction heating to 163°C and failed at 4.38 MPa; (c) Local enlargement of (a) at the location marked “c,” showing the impression of the coated steel surface after interface fracture; (d) Local enlargement of (a) in the region marked “d,” showing the fracture within the dense adhesive layer; (e) Local enlargement of (b) in the region marked “e,” showing the fracture in the bubbled region of the adhesive layer.
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SEM micrographs of fractured surfaces from samples cured by electric resistance heating to 100°C at various heating rates: (a) 10°C/min, (b) 50°C/min, and (c) 100°C/min. Also shown in (d) is the specimen by natural curing (at RT) for 140 h without heating. (All scale bars are in 500 μm).
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Area fraction of voids are plotted against: (a) the peak temperature, at heating rate=100°C/min and (b) heating rate, at the peak temperature of 100°C. Specimens were obtained from electrical resistance heating.
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Schematic plots of (a) ln α̇ versus (α,1/T), for the rate function α̇=A e−E/RTαm(1−α)n; and (b) α vs (T,t), and the full derivative of α, along with its two partial derivatives, under a constant heating rate
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Schematic of three heating paths with different heating rates (Paths 1–3) and an isothermal curing path at 100°C (Path 4). The integration area underneath each cure rate curve (including cooling) gives the achieved degree of cure for each path specified.
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(a) Concept of failure process and (b) the strategy of enhancing bonding strength by increasing α and decreasing voids

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