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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Wheel-Tooling Gap Measurement System for Conform™ Extrusion Machinery Based on a Capacitive Sensor

[+] Author and Article Information
K. Khawaja

Holton Machinery Ltd Albany House, Elliott Rd, Bournemouth, BH11 8JH, UKe-mail: kafeel.khawaja@outokumpu.com

L. Seneviratne

Department of Mechanical Engineering, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UKe-mail: lakmal.seneviratne@kcl.ac.uk

K. Althoefer

Department of Mechanical Engineering, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UKe-mail: k.althoefer@kcl.ac.uk

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 127(2), 394-401 (Apr 25, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1870004 History: Received July 08, 2003; Revised August 22, 2004; Online April 25, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Etherington, C., 1973, “CONFORM—A New Concept of Continuous Forming of Metals,” ASME No. 73, WA/PT2.
Maddock, B., 1984, “Introduction and Information of Conform,” Northern Non-Ferrous Wire Drawing Association Annual Meeting, 4th and 5th, Malmo, Sweden.
Etherington, C., and Slater, H. K., 1984, “The Extrusion of Aluminum and Its Alloys by the CONFORM Process,” Proc. of Third Int. Aluminum Extrusion Technology Seminar, Vol. 2, pp. 31–38, Atherton, Aluminum Extruders Council and the Aluminum Association.
Slater, H. K., and Coon, P. M., 1988, “Aluminum Extrusion by Conform—An Update on Development Experience at the Springfields Laboratories of the UK Atomic Energy Authority,” Proc. of Fourth Int. Aluminum Extrusion Technology Seminar, Aluminum Extruders Council and the Aluminum Association, Chicago, Vol. 2, pp. 525–532.
Bridewater, M., and Maddock, B., 1992, “New Developments in Conform Technology for Continuous Extrusion,” Proc. of Fifth Int. Aluminum Extrusion Technology Seminar, Chicago, Aluminum Extruders Council and the Aluminum Association, Vol. 1, pp. 413–419.
Green,  D., 1972, “Continuous Extrusion-Forming of Wire Sections,” J. Inst. Met., 100, pp. 295–300.
Etherington,  C., 1977, “The UKAEA Conform Method of Continuous Extrusion Forming,” Wire Ind., 1(2), pp. 85–89; 19772(3), pp. 161–169.
Gorokhov,  Y. V., Sergeev,  V. M., Gilevich,  F. S., and Kornilov,  V. N., 1987, “Force Parameters of Continuous Metal Pressing by Conform Method,” Tsvetnye Met., 4, pp. 73–75.
Carr, N., Ahmad, H. Y., and Clode, M. P., 1996, “Simulation and Analysis of Deformation in Conform Extrusion,” Proc. of the Sixth Int. Aluminum Extrusion Technology Seminar, Vol. 11, pp. 413–419, Aluminum Extruders Council and the Aluminum Association, Chicago.
Im,  Y. T., Kang,  S. H., and Cheon,  J. S., 2002, “Finite Element Investigation of Friction Condition in a Backward Extrusion of Aluminum Alloy,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 125(2), pp. 378–383.
Gordon,  W. A., Van Tyne,  C. J., and Sriram,  S., 2002, “Extrusion Through Spherical Dies—An Upper Bound Analysis,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 124(1), pp. 92–97.
Byon,  S. M., and Hwang,  S. M., 1997, “Die Shape Optimal Design in Bimetal Extrusion by the Finite Element Method,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 119(2), pp. 143–150.
Kim,  Y. H., Cho,  J. R., Jeong,  H. S., Kim,  K. S., and Yoon,  S. S., 1998, “A Study on Optimal Design for CONFORM Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 80–81, pp. 671–675.
Kim,  Y. H., Cho,  J. R., Kim,  K. S., Jeong,  H. S., and Yoon,  S. S., 2000, “A Study of the Application of Upper Bound Method to the CONFORM Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 97, pp. 153–157.
Maddock, B., 2000, “The Structure and Development of a Computer Model to Simulate the Conform Process,” Proc. of Seventh Int. Aluminum Extrusion Technology Seminar, Vol. 1, pp. 519–531, Chicago, USA, Aluminum Extruders Council and the Aluminum Association.
Velay, X., and Sheppard, T., 2000, “Plain Strain and Three-Dimensional Coupled Thermomechanical Simulation of the Conform™ Process,” Proc. of Seventh International Aluminum Extrusion Technology Seminar, Vol. 1, pp. 505–515, Chicago, USA, Aluminum Extruders Council and the Aluminum Association.
Outokumpu Copper Oy, 1997, “Method for the Continuous Extrusion of Metals,” UK Patent No. 9704202.2, Feb. 28.
Holton Machinery Ltd, 1988, “Continuous Extrusion Using Active Shoe Positioning,” UK Patent No. 9825106.9, Nov. 16.
Khawaja, K., Maddock, B., Smith, M., Seneviratne, L., and Clode, M., “Automatic Control of the Conform™ Extrusion Machine Using Air Gauge Sensors,” Submitted to IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronic.
Foster, R., 1989, “Linear Capacitive Reactance Sensors for Industrial Applications,” SAE Technical Paper Series, Paper no. 890974, 40th Annual Earthmoving Industry Conference, Peoria.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Conform extrusion wheel (as part of the machine drive shaft)
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(a) Entry plate sensor average calibration curve (b) Affect of temperature on gap readings from capacitive sensors
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Tooling plates after running
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Operator-based machine control system
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Relationship between gap measurement and actuation system
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Machine start and slugs feed in Conform™ process
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Corresponding temperature rise for Fig. 10
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Corresponding temperature rise for Fig. 12

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