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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Failure Analysis of Rapid Prototyped Tooling in Sheet Metal Forming—Cylindrical Cup Drawing

[+] Author and Article Information
Y. Park, J. S. Colton

The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 127(1), 126-137 (Mar 21, 2005) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1828054 History: Received August 11, 2003; Revised February 11, 2004; Online March 21, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Aronson,  R. B., 1998, “Toolmaking through Rapid Prototyping,” Manuf. Eng., 11, pp. 52–56.
Miller,  W., 1999, “Production Dies for Rapid Prototyping of Metal Formed Parts,” Fabricator 29(4), pp. 44–47.
Du,  Z. H., Chua,  C. K., Chua,  Y. S., Loh-Lee,  K. G., and Lim,  S. T., 2002, “Rapid Sheet Metal Manufacturing. Part 1: Indirect Rapid Tooling,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 19, pp. 411–417.
Cheah,  C. M., Chua,  C. K., Lee,  C. W., Lim,  S. T., Eu,  K. H., and Lin,  L. T., 2002, “Rapid Sheet Metal Manufacturing. Part II: Direct Rapid Tooling,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 19, pp. 510–515.
Park, Y., 2003, “Sheet Metal Forming Using Rapid Prototyped Tooling,” Ph.D. thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology.
Jensen,  M. R., Damborg,  F. F., Nielsen,  K. B., and Danckert,  J., 1998, “Applying the Finite Element Method for Determination of Tool Wear in Conventional Deep Drawing,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 83, pp. 98–105.
Jensen,  M. R., Damborg,  F. F., Nielsen,  K. B., and Danckert,  J., 1998, “Optimization of the Draw Die Design in Conventional Deep Drawing in Order to Minimize Tool Wear,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 83, pp. 106–114.
Christiansen,  S., and de Chiffre,  L., 1997, “Topographic Characterization of Progressive Wear on Deep Drawing Dies,” STLE Tribol. Trans., 40(2), pp. 346–352.
Siegert, K., and Haller, B., 1998, “Prototype Draw Dies for Sheet Metal Parts,” Developments in Sheet Metal Stamping, Warrendale, PA, SAE SP-1322, pp. 41–51.
Sachs, G., 1966, Principles and Methods of Sheet Metal Fabricating, 2nd ed., Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.
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American Society of Tool and Manufacturing Engineers, 1965, Die Design Handbook, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
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Kocanda,  A. Z., and Raddad,  B., 1992, “Elasto-Plastic Deformation Behavior and Fracture of Ring-Shaped Dies,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 34, pp. 181–186.
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Figures

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Schematic of deep drawing
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FE model of cylindrical cup drawing
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Stress distributions in the cup drawing die: (a) configuration; (b) maximum principal stress distribution (12.03 sec); (c) minimum principal stress distribution (11.03 sec)
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Force curve for a typical drawing process up to die fracture
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Punch–sheet–die configurations: (a) at maximum drawing force; (b) at fracture
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Stresses along the die corner radius: (a) maximum principal stress curves; (b) definition of “distance”
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A comparison of drawing forces: (a) Case 1; (b) Case 2
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Main effects plot for (a) (σ1)max; (b) (Tn)max
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Influential two-factor interactions for (σ1)max: (a) DR−Rp interaction; (b) t0-Strength interaction; (c) Rd−Wr interaction
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Effects of punch-die clearance and run-off in cup drawing: (a) c=2.25t0; (b) c=1.75t0
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Representative fracture modes: (a) one-crack mode; (b) two-crack mode; (c) three-crack mode
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Progressive formation of die wear after (a) 10 parts; (b) 60 parts; (c) 110 parts; (d) 140 parts
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Plastic deformation in the punch: (a) Rp=3 mm (2 parts); (b) Rp=6 mm (83 parts); (c) Rp=6 mm (413 parts)
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Effect of punch corner radius on normal traction: (a) Normal traction distribution along punch corner; (b) angle around punch corner

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