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TECHNICAL PAPERS

General Framework of Optimal Tool Trajectory Planning for Free-Form Surfaces in Surface Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Heping Chen, Ning Xi

ECE Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

Weihua Sheng

ECE Department, Kettering University, Flint, MI

Yifan Chen

Scientific Research Laboratory, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 127(1), 49-59 (Mar 21, 2005) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1828057 History: Received July 22, 2003; Revised March 31, 2004; Online March 21, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Chen, H., Xi, N., Sheng, W., Song, M., and Chen, Y., 2002, “Automated Robot Trajectory Planning for Spray Painting of Free-Form Surfaces in Automotive Manufacturing,” IEEE International Conference Robotics and Automation, Washington, DC, Vol. 1, pp. 450–455.
Asakawa N., and Takeuchi, Y., 1997, “Teachingless Spray-Painting of Sculptured Surface by an Industrial Robot,” IEEE International Conference Robotics and Automation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Vol. 3, pp. 1875–1879.
Suh,  S., Woo,  I., and Noh,  S., 1991, “Automatic Trajectory Planning System (ATPS) for Spray Painting Robots,” J. Manuf. Syst., 10(5), pp. 396–406.
Chavka N. G., and Dahl, J., 1998, “P4 Preforming Technology: Development of a High Volume Manufacturing Method for Fiber Preforms,” IEEE ACCE/ESD: Advanced Composite Conference Proceedings, Detroit, MI, Vol 1.
Chalmers,  R. E., 2001, “Rapid tooling Technology from Ford Country,” Manuf. Eng., 11, pp. 36–38.
Sheng, W., Xi, N., Song, M., Chen, Y., and MacNeille, P., 2000, “CAD-guided Robot Path Planning for Spray Painting of Compound Surfaces,” IEEE International Conference Intelligent Robots and Systems, Takamatsu, Japn, Vol. 3 pp. 1918–1923.
Chen, H., Xi, N., Sheng, W., Chen, Y., and Dahl, J., 2003, “A General Framework for Automatic CAD-Guided Tool Planning for Surface Manufacturing,” IEEE International Conference Robotics and Automation, Taipei, Taiwan, Vol. 3, pp. 3504–3509.
Tecnomatix, 1999, ROBCAD/Paint Training, Tecnomatix, Michigan.
Sheng, W., 2002, CAD-Based Robot Motion Planning for Inspection in Manufacturing, Michigan State University, Michigan.
Shah, J. J., and Mantyla, M., 1995, Parametric and Feature-Based CAD/CAM: Concepts, Wiley, New York.
Lai,  J. Y., and Wang,  D. J., 1994, “A Strategy for Finish Cutting Path Generation of Compound Surface,” Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu, 25, pp. 189–209.
Antonio,  J. K., Ramabhadran,  R., and Ling,  T. L., 1997, “Practical Identification of NARMAX Models Using Radial Basis Function,” Int. J. Robotics Automation, 12(4), pp. 124–134.
Persoons, W., and Van Brussel, H., 1993, “CAD-Based Robotic Coating with Highly Curved Surfaces,” International Symposium on Intelligent Robotics (ISIR’93), Bangalore, India, Vol. XXIV pp. 611–618.
Chen, H., Xi, N., Chen, Y., 2003, “Multiple Optimal Robot Path Planning in Manufacturing, IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Las Vegas, Vol. 2, pp. 1167–1172.
Gill, P. E., Murray, W., and Wright, M. H., 1981, Practical Optimization, Academic Press, New York.
Chen, H., Xi, N., Wei, Z., Chen, Y., and Dahl, J., 2003, “Robot Trajectory Integration for Painting Automotive Parts with Multiple Patches,” IEEE International Conference Robotics and Automation, Taipei, Taiwan, Vol. 3 pp. 3504–3509.
Avriel, M., 1976, Nonlinear Programming: Analysis and Methods, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
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Figures

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A general framework for the automatic CAD-guided optimal tool planning system
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The optimal tool planner
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The triangular approximation of part of a car hood
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(a) A tool model. (b) A typical tool profile
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Material distribution of a point s on a plane: R is the spray radius; x the distance of the point s to the first path; v the tool velocity, and d the overlapping distance
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(a) A patch and its bounding box: TOP, FRONT, and RIGHT are the directions of the bounding box. (b) The improved bounding box method to generate a path for a patch.
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Part of a tool path and a series sample points
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The material distribution on the intersecting area of two patches
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(a) Case 1: parallel-parallel case; (b) Case 2: parallel-perpendicular case; and (c) Case 3: perpendicular-perpendicular case
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Parallel-parallel (PA-PA) case
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Parallel-perpendicular(PA-PE) case
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Perpendicular-perpendicular (PE-PE) case
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A surface with three patches
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A path is divided into segments
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The optimized material quantity when α=30°: (a) PA-PA; (b) PA-PE; and (c) PE-PE
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(a) The triangular approximation of a car door; (b) the generated path of a car hood; and (c) the generated path of a car door
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The simulation result of paint thickness: (a) a car hood and (b) a car door
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The optimal velocity: (a) the car hood and (b) the car door
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The optimal material distribution: (a) the car hood and (b) the car door
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The ROBCAD simulation: (a) the system setup; (b) a part of a gun path; and (c) a painted part
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The part with two flat patches when α=30°
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The generated paths: (a) PA-PA; (b) PA-PE; and (c) PE-PE
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The material quantity: (a) PA-PA; (b) PA-PE; and (c) PE-PE

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