0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

3D Ball-End Milling Force Model Using Instantaneous Cutting Force Coefficients

[+] Author and Article Information
Jeong Hoon Ko

Automotive Mechatronics Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784, South Korea

Dong-Woo Cho

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784, South Korea

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 127(1), 1-12 (Mar 21, 2005) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1826077 History: Received June 15, 2003; Revised March 13, 2004; Online March 21, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
Topics: Force , Cutting , Milling , Thickness
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Yun,  W. S., Ko,  J. H., and Cho,  D. W., 2003, “Development of a Virtual Machine Tool—Part 1: Mechanistic Cutting Force Model, Machined Surface Error Model, and Feed Rate Scheduling Model,” Int. J. Korean Soc. Precision Eng., 4, pp. 71–76.
Armarego, E. J. A., and Brown, R. H., 1969, The Machining of Metals, Prentice–Hall, New York.
Kienzle,  O., and Victor,  H., 1957, “Spezifische Schnittkrafte bei der Metallbearbeiting,” Werkst. Maschinenbau, 47, pp. 224–225.
Sabberwal,  A. J. P., 1961, “Chip Section and Cutting Force During the Milling Operation,” CIRP Ann., 10, pp. 197–203.
Tlusty,  J., and MacNei,  P., 1975, “Dynamics of Cutting Forces in End Milling,” CIRP Ann., 24, pp. 21–25.
Fu,  H. J., Devor,  R. E., and Kapoor,  S. G., 1984, “A Mechanistic Model for the Predictions of the Force System in Face Milling Operations,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 106, pp. 81–88.
Yang,  M., and Park,  H., 1991, “The Prediction of the Cutting Force in Ball-End Milling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 31, pp. 45–54.
Sim,  C., and Yang,  M., 1993, “The Prediction of the Cutting Force in Ball-End Milling With a Flexible Cutter,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 33, pp. 267–284.
Nakayama,  K., and Arai,  M., 1966, “On the Storage of Data on Metal Cutting Forces,” CIRP Ann., 25, pp. 13–16.
Ueda,  N., and Matuso,  T., 1976, “An Investigation of Some Shear Angle Theories,” CIRP Ann., 35, pp. 27–30.
Lee,  P., and Altintas,  Y., 1996, “Prediction of Ball-End Milling Forces From Orthogonal Cutting Data,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 36, pp. 1059–1072.
Altintas,  Y., and Lee,  P., 1998, “Mechanics and Dynamics of Ball End Milling,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 120, pp. 684–692.
Abrari,  F., Elbestawi,  M. A., and Spence,  A. D., 1998, “On the Dynamics of Ball End Milling: Modeling of Cutting Forces and Stability Analysis,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 38, pp. 215–237.
Shalta,  M., and Altan,  T., 2000, “Analytical Modeling of Drilling and Ball End Milling,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 98, pp. 125–133.
Oxley,  P. L. B., 1966, “Introducing Strain-Rate Dependent Work Material Properties into the Analysis of Orthogonal Cutting,” CIRP Ann., 13, pp. 127–138.
Engin,  S., and Altintas,  Y., 2001, “Mechanics and Dynamics of General Milling Cutters,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 41, pp. 2195–2212.
Mounayri,  H. E. I., Spence,  A. D., and Elbestawi,  M. A., 1998, “Milling Process Simulation—A Generic Solid Modeler Based Paradigm,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 120, pp. 213–221.
Feng,  H. S., and Menq,  C. H., 1994, “The Prediction of Cutting Forces in the Ball-End Milling Process—I. Model Formulation and Model Building Procedure,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 34, pp. 697–710.
Yucesan, F., and Altintas, Y., 1993, “Mechanics of Ball End Milling Process,” ASME Winter Annual Meeting, PED 64, pp. 543–551.
Yucesan,  F., and Altintas,  Y., 1996, “Prediction of Ball End Milling Forces,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., pp. 95–103.
Imani,  B. M., Sadeghi,  M. H., and Elbestawi,  M. A., 1998, “An Improved Process Simulation System For Ball-End Milling of Sculptured Surfaces,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 38, pp. 1089–1107.
Zhu,  R., Kapoor,  S. G., and DeVor,  R. E., 2001, “Mechanistic Modeling of the Ball End Milling Process for Multi-Axis Machining of Free-Form Surfaces,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 123, pp. 369–379.
Kline,  W. A., Devor,  R. E., and Lindberg,  J. R., 1982, “The Prediction of Cutting Forces in End Milling with Application to Cornering Cuts,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 22, pp. 7–22.
Bailey,  T., Elbestawi,  M. A., Ei-Wardany,  T. I., and Fitzpatrick,  P., 2002, “Generic Simulation Approach for Multi-Axis Machining, Part 1: Modeling Methodology,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 124, pp. 624–633.
Lazoglu,  I., and Liang,  S. Y., 1997, “Analytical Modeling of Ball-End Milling Forces,” Int. J. Mach. Sci. Tech., 1, pp. 219–234.
Lazoglu,  I., and Liang,  S. Y., 2000, “Modeling of Ball-End Milling Forces with Cutter Axis Inclination,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 122, pp. 3–11.
Lazoglu,  I., 2003, “Sculpture Surface Machining: A Generalized Model of Ball-End Milling Force System,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 43, pp. 453–462.
Wang,  J.-J. J., and Zheng,  C. M., 2002, “Identification of Shearing and Ploughing Cutting Constants from Average Forces in Ball-End Milling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 42, pp. 695–705.
Feng,  H. Y., and Su,  N., 2001, “A Mechanistic Cutting Force Model for 3D Ball-End Milling,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 123, pp. 23–29.
Gere, J. M., and Timoshenko, S. P., 1994, Mechanics of Materials, Chapman & Hall, City.
Kops,  L., and Vo,  D. T., 1990, “Determination of the Equivalent Diameter of an End Mill Based on its Compliance,” CIRP Ann., 39, pp. 93–96.
Boothroyd, G., and Knight, W. A., 1989, Fundamentals of Machining and Machine Tools, Marcel Dekker, New York.
Kapoor,  S. G., DeVor,  R. E., Zhu,  R., Gajjela,  R., Parakkal,  G., and Smithey,  D., 1998, “Development of Mechanistic Models For The Prediction of Machining Performance: Model Building Methodology,” Mach. Sci. Technol., 2, pp. 213–238.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Unit vectors on the rake surface and the geometry of a sliced disk produced by the cutter. (α is the cutter edge location angle, αr the rake angle, o̸ the angular position of the cutter edge, θ the cutter rotation angle, and R(z) indicates the local radius of the disk.) (a) Unit vectors on the rake surface. (b) Geometry of a sliced disk produced by the cutter.
Grahic Jump Location
Cutter runout and the related parameters. (ρ is the radial runout offset of a cutter and αrun is its location angle.)
Grahic Jump Location
Feed components in 3-axis machining. (fth is the horizontal feed component; ftz is the vertical feed component; and ψ is the feed angle.)
Grahic Jump Location
Possible uncut chip thickness in three-dimensional machining
Grahic Jump Location
Subtraction process for determining the cutting force coefficients
Grahic Jump Location
Algorithm for determining the cutting force coefficients and runout parameters in ball-end milling. (nθ is 360°/Δθ and nf is the number of flutes.)
Grahic Jump Location
Measured cutting forces used to determine the cutting force coefficients and runout parameters. (R0=5 mm,WOC=10 mm,DOC=0.3 mm, feed rate=100 mm/min, spindle speed=1000 rpm.)
Grahic Jump Location
Cutting force coefficients determined along with the determined runout parameters. (Offset=0.009 mm,angle=100°.)
Grahic Jump Location
Change in cutter edge length along the z-axis
Grahic Jump Location
Definition of the cutter edge length, ds.
Grahic Jump Location
Plot of ln(Kn) versus the rescaled uncut chip thickness (tcr)
Grahic Jump Location
Plot of Kf versus the instantaneous uncut chip thickness (tc)
Grahic Jump Location
A comparison of θhl and θhlc. (α is the cutter edge location angle and R(z) is the cutter radius in the x-y plane at axial location z.)
Grahic Jump Location
Plot of θc−θhlc versus the instantaneous uncut chip thickness (tc)
Grahic Jump Location
A comparison of measured and predicted cutting forces for fixed cutting conditions. (a) Cutting conditions: WOC=5 mm,DOC=2.5 mm, feed rate=250 mm/min, spindle speed=1000 rpm (Test 8). (b) Cutting conditions: WOC=5 mm,DOC=2.7 mm, feed rate=70 mm/min, spindle speed=1000 rpm (Test 9). (c) Cutting conditions: WOC=5 mm,DOC=1 mm, feed rate=900 mm/min, spindle speed=9000 rpm (Test 17). (d) Cutting conditions: WOC=12 mm,DOC=4.0 mm, feed rate=100 mm/min, spindle speed=1000 rpm (Test 23). (e) Cutting conditions: WOC=5.0 mm,DOC=0.6 mm, feed rate=100 mm/min, spindle speed=2000 rpm (Test 24). (f ) Cutting conditions: WOC=5.0 mm,DOC=0.6 mm, feed rate=300 mm/min, spindle speed=6000 rpm (Test 26). (g) Cutting conditions: WOC=5.0 mm,DOC=3.0 mm, feed rate=50 mm/min, spindle speed=500 rpm (Test 27). (h) WOC=10.0 mm,DOC=3.5 mm, feed rate=70 mm/min, spindle speed=1000 rpm (Test 29).
Grahic Jump Location
Workpiece geometry for machining along a wavelike path (half-radial immersion condition)
Grahic Jump Location
A comparison of measured and predicted cutting forces for the cutting configuration in Fig. 17 (a) Measured cutting force Fx. (b) Predicted cutting force Fx. (c) Measured cutting force Fy. (d) Predicted cutting force Fy. (e) Measured cutting force Fz. (f ) Predicted cutting force Fz.
Grahic Jump Location
Workpiece geometry for machining along an inclined path.
Grahic Jump Location
A comparison of measured and predicted cutting forces for the cutting configuration in Fig. 19. (a) Measured cutting force Fx. (b) Predicted cutting force Fx. (c) Measured cutting force Fy. (d) Predicted cutting force Fy. (e) Measured cutting force Fz. (f) Predicted cutting force Fz.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In