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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Three Dimensional Imaging of LIGA-Made Microcomponents

[+] Author and Article Information
Douglas Chinn

Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS0603 Albuquerque, NM 87185

Peter Ostendorp

Dartmouth College, HB 8000, Hanover, NH 03755

Mike Haugh, Russell Kershmann

Resolution Sciences Corporation, 685 Northern Ave., Mill Valley, CA 94941

Thomas Kurfess, Andre Claudet, Thomas Tucker

Georgia Institute of Technology, Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 126(4), 813-821 (Feb 04, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1812774 History: Received February 09, 2004; Revised September 01, 2004; Online February 04, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Solecky,  E., Archie,  C., Hayes,  T., Banke,  B., and Cornell,  R., 2001, “Three Dimensional Top Down Metrology: A Viable Alternative to AFM or Cross Section?,” Metrology, Inspection and Process Control for Microlithography XV, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE, 4344, p. 366–376.
Russ, J. C., 2002, The Image Processing Handbook, 4th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Udupa, J. K., and Herman, G. T., eds., 2000, 3D Imaging in Medicine, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Osten,  W., Seebacher,  S., and Jeptner,  W., 2001, “The Application of Digital Holography for the Inspection of Microcomponents,” Proc. SPIE, 4400, pp. 1–15. Other papers in this volume also discuss 3D imaging and measurement.
Franco, E., Chang, W., and Morales, A., 2002, “Non-Destructive Creation of Accurate 3D Images of MEMS Microcomponents,” unpublished results.
Pourciel, J. B., Jalabert, L., and Masuzawa, T., 2002, “SDAPPLIN, A Method for 2-D Profiling on High Aspect Ratio Microstructures. Improvement for 3D Surfacing,” Mitsuishi, M., Kurfess, T., ed., Proc. 2002 Japan–USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, Hiroshima, Japan, July, 2002, p. 553–555. Published by the Institute of Systems, Control and Information, Kyoto, Japan.
Sinha,  G., 2001, Popular Science, Dec., pp. 80–83.
Ewald,  A. J., McBride,  H., Reddington,  M., Fraser,  S. E., and Kerschmann,  R., 2002, “Surface Imaging Microscopy, an Automated Method for Visualizing Whole Embryo Samples in Three Dimensions at High Resolution,” Top. Mol. Organ. Eng., 225, pp. 369–375.
Madou, M., 1997, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
The Sandia LIGA website, http://www.ca.sandia.gov/liga/
U.S. Patent No. 4,960,330, Image Recording Device, Russell L. Kerschmann.
The website containing Digital Volumetric Imaging information, www.microsciencegroup.com
Swab,  P., 1995, “Ultramicrotomy of Diamond Films for TEM Cross-Section Analysis,” Microsc. Res. Tech., 31, pp. 308–310.
Barreto,  M. P., Veillette,  R., and L’Esperance,  G., 1995, “Development and Application of a Dry Ultramicrotomy Technique for the Preparation of Galvanneal Sheet Coatings,” Microsc. Res. Tech., 31, pp. 293–299.
McMahon,  G., and Malis,  T., 1995, “Ultramicrotomy of Hard Materials,” Microsc. Res. Tech., 31, pp. 267–274.
Glanvill,  S. R., 1995, “Ultramicrotomy of Semiconductors and Related Materials,” Microsc. Res. Tech., 31, pp. 275–284.
Claudet, A., 2001, “Analysis of Three Dimensional Measurement Data and Multi-Surface CAD Models,” Ph.D. dissertation, School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.
Claudet, A., and Kurfess, T., 2002, “Analysis of 3D Measurement Data for Micro-Systems,” Mitsuishi, M., Kurfess, T., eds., Proc. of the Japan–USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, Hiroshima, Japan, July, 2002, pp. 250–252. Published by the Institute of Systems, Control and Information, Kyoto, Japan.
Dennis, J. E., Jr., and Schnabel, R. B., 1996, Numerical Methods for Unconstrained Optimization and Nonlinear Equations, SIAM, Philadelphia.
Peigl, L., and Wayne T., 1997, The NURBS Book: Monographs in Visual Communication, 2nd ed., Springer, New York.
Claudet, A., 1998, Master thesis, “Data Reduction For High Speed Computational Analysis of Three Dimensional Coordinate Measurement Data,” Master’s thesis, School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.
Shenk, A., 1998, Calculus and Analytic Geometry, 4th ed., Scott, Foresman and Company, Boston.
Tucker, T. M., 2000, “A New Method for Parametric Surface Registration,” Ph.D. dissertation, School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.
Tucker,  T. M., and Kurfess,  T. R., 2003, “Newton Methods for Parametric Surface Registration: Part I: Theory,” Comput.-Aided Des., 35, pp. 107–113.
Tucker,  T. M., and Kurfess,  T. R., 2003, “Newton Methods for Parametric Surface Registration: Part II: Experimental Validation,” Comput.-Aided Des., 35, pp. 114–120.
T. Malis, 2003, personal communication.
Private communication and unpublished paper by Eugene Gleason, 2002, Bal-tec Corporation, Los Angeles, CA. Bal-tec and other bearing manufacturers have developed sophisticated and precise ways to measure ball bearings.

Figures

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(a) 3D images if tissues. A false color chick embryo. (b) A plant root, also in false color. The “bounding box” surrounding the object is an aid to the eye and can be removed with software. Further processing can enhance different details of objects imaged with DVI.
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The LIGA process. After plating, the PMMA is dissolved and the parts are released from the substrate.
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A schematic of the Digital Volumetric Imaging process
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(a) 3D image of LIGA gear: After the stack of 2D images has been converted to the proprietary format, a 3D image emerges. This 3D rendering can be cropped and rotated. (b) 2D cross section showing one slice of a gear. (c) Surface detection: RESView software performs an edge threshold surface detection algorithm on a 3D dataset, enabling the metrological inspection of complex 3D geometries. The above image of a LIGA gear has been cropped from above to demonstrate that interior image information has been removed, leaving only sidewalls. The surface generated is 1 voxel thick throughout. (d) CAD model of a gear. See Table 2 for details.
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Error map: By performing normal point-to-surface calculations, Paraform’s inspection module creates an error map of the LIGA gear that shows clearly where deviations from design geometry occur. Deviations are strongest near the gear hub. The error scale is in units of microns.
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(a) A DVI image of a brass ball bearing. (b) That same ball imaged relative to a sphere model, showing surface defects. (c) A DVI image of another ball matched to a CAD model of a sphere, which shows imperfections in the manufacturing process. The region at the top is missing data where the remaining partial sphere fell out of the mold. (d) A SEM image of a brass ball for comparison. DVI shows surface phenomena that cannot be seen by SEM. The original DVI images are in color. These ball bearings have been measured by a variety of techniques. Using calipers, the ball measured 1.54–1.57 mm, using a calibrated SEM image by counting pixels, the ball measured 1.567 mm, with an edge selected by eyeball, and using DVI we measured 1.571 and 1.568 mm in X and Y directions. The errors noted are typical—as can be seen from the images above, the exact location of the surface varies.
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(a) A complete nickel alloy spring with surface defects. (b) A deeper section of the same part, showing that the bottom defects are primarily on the surface, but the one small hole near the top leads to a large void within the spring.
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A 2D image of the oval void in Fig. 6 showing the fine detail of this imaging technique.

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