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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Mechanical Approach to Nanomachining of Silicon Using Oxide Characteristics Based on Tribo Nanolithography (TNL) in KOH Solution

[+] Author and Article Information
Jeong Woo Park

Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, VBL, Toyama University, 930-8555, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama, Japan

Noritaka Kawasegi

Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, Graduate School, Toyama University, 930-8555, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama, Japan

Noboru Morita

Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, Toyama University, 930-8555, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama, Japan

Deug Woo Lee

Division of Nanoscience and Technology, Pusan National University, 609-735, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan, Korea

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126(4), 801-806 (Feb 04, 2005) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1811114 History: Received February 01, 2004; Revised August 01, 2004; Online February 04, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Experimental procedure for fabricating microstructures on (100)-oriented Si using TNL method: (a) an oxide layer patterned on (100)-oriented Si along the scanning path of diamond tip; (b) a cross section profile of the single oxide line; (c) a protruded area made up of a series of oxidized protuberances with a pitch, a dotted line shows the oxide distribution affected by diamond tip; (d) dissolution characteristics of silicon oxide in HF; and (e) a square structure after being transferred from the oxide using anisotropic wet etching in KOH
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Auger depth profile of surface area on (a) as-grown area and (b) the TNL-processed area by diamond tip. Depth profiles of SiKLL show that the intensity (count) decreases at the very surface of silicon where that of OKLL increases on TNL-processed area.
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SEM image of diamond-tip cantilever for TNL
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Process model of TNL method in KOH solution
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(a) AFM topography image of microstructures (20×10 μm2 area) prepared according to the TNL method with a normal force of 670 μN in 5 mass% KOH solution. Speed in x and y direction were 40 μm/s and 39 nm/s, respectively. It took 316 s to fabricate this structure, including 60 s for additional anisotropic etching. (b) AFM topography image of grating consisting of 16 bars with ridge width of 500 nm in 50×25 μm2 area prepared with a normal force of 400 μN in 5 mass% KOH solution. Speed in x and y directions were 10 μm/s and 156 nm/s, respectively. Image recorded at a scan rate of 1 Hz with conventional Si3N4 cantilever for measuring.
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Yielding time of oxide layer in 5 mass% KOH with ultrasonic wave plotted as a function of the normal tip force at 8, 40, 80, and 120 μN
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AFM topography image of a single line fabricated by TNL with a normal force of 400 μN (a) and after etching in 25% HF for 20 min (b). H2-H1 means the thickness of oxide layer. All images recorded at a scan rate of 1 Hz with conventional Si3N4 cantilever for measuring.
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(a) AFM topography image of single lines generated via increasing normal tip force (A–E) at a speed of 6 μm/s. (b) AFM topography images of single lines after etching in 25 mass% HF for 20 min. The identification letter, thickness of oxide layer, and normal tip force are A: 0.65 nm, 137 μN; B: 5.64 nm, 270 μN; C: 8.26 nm, 400 μN; D: 10.84 nm, 540 μN; and E: 12.05 nm, 670 μN. Image recorded at a scan rate of 1 Hz. (c) Thickness of oxide layer plotted as a function of normal tip force.
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Yielding time of oxide layer in 5 mass% KOH with ultrasonic wave plotted as a function of number of machining times from 1 to 5 times
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(a) AFM topography image of single lines generated via increasing number of machining times (A–D) at a speed of 6 μm/s and a normal tip force of 670 μN. (b) AFM topography images of single lines after etching in 25 mass% HF for 20 min. The identification letter, thickness of oxide layer, and number of machining times are A: 16.68 nm, 4 times; B: 16.07 nm, 3 times; C: 15.67 nm, 2 times; and D: 15.12 nm, once. Image recorded at a scan rate of 1 Hz. (c) Thickness of oxide layer plotted as a function of number of machining times.
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Yielding time of oxide layer in 5 mass% KOH with ultrasonic wave plotted as a function of scan speed at 10, 50, 100, and 200 μm/s
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(a) AFM topography image of single lines generated via increasing scan speed (A–C) at a normal tip force of 670 μN. (b) AFM topography images of single lines after etching in 25 mass% HF for 20 min. The identification letter, thickness of oxide layer, and scan speeds are A: 11.7 nm, 6 μm/s; B: 9.3 nm, 30 μm/s; and C: 9.11 nm, 60 μm/s. Image recorded at a scan rate of 1 Hz. (c) Thickness of oxide layer plotted as a function of scan speed.

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