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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Determination of a Major Design Parameter for Forward Extrusion of Spur Gears

[+] Author and Article Information
Jong-Ho Song, Yong-Taek Im

Computer Aided Materials Processing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, ME3227, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 126(2), 255-263 (Jul 08, 2004) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1688379 History: Received September 01, 2002; Revised October 01, 2003; Online July 08, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Chitkara,  N. R., and Bhutta,  M. A., 1996, “Near-Net Shape Forging of Spur Gear Forms: An Analysis and Some Experiments,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 38(8–9), pp. 891–916.
Osman,  F. H., and Bramley,  A. N., 1995, “Preform Design for Forging Rotationally Symmetric Parts,” CIRP Ann., 44(1), pp. 227–230.
Szentmihali,  V., Lange,  K., Tronel,  Y., Chenot,  J. L., and Ducloux,  R., 1994, “3-D Finite-Element Simulation of the Cold Forging of Helical Gears,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 43, pp. 279–291.
Mamalis,  A. G., Manolakos,  D. E., and Baldoukas,  A. K., 1996, “Simulation of the Precision Forging of Bevel Gears Using Implicit and Explicit FE Techniques,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 57, pp. 164–171.
Rahman,  A. R. O. A., and Dean,  T. A., 1981, “The Quality of Hot Forged Spur Gear Forms. Part II: Tooth Form Accuracy,” Int. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res., 21(2), pp. 129–141.
Sadeghi,  M. H., and Dean,  T. A., 1994, “Precision Forging Straight and Helical Spur Gears,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 45, pp. 25–30.
Doege,  E., and Bohnsack,  R., 2000, “Closed Die Technologies for Hot Forging,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 98, pp. 165–170.
Kondo,  K., and Ohga,  K., 1995, “Precision Cold Die Forging of a Ring Gear by Divided Flow Method,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 35(8), pp. 1105–1113.
Kim,  S. Y., and Im,  Y. T., 2000, “Three-Dimensional Finite Element Simulations of Shape Rolling of Bars,” Int. J. Form. Proc.,3(3–4), pp. 253–278.
Han,  C. H., and Yang,  D. Y., 1988, “Further Investigation Into Extrusion of Trocoidal Gear Sections Considering Three-Dimensional Plastic Flow,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 30(1), pp. 13–30.
Yang,  D. Y., Kim,  H. S., Lee,  C. M., and Han,  C. H., 1990, “Analysis of Three-Dimensional Extrusion of Arbitrarily Shaped Tubes,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 32(2), pp. 115–127.
Altan, T., Oh, S. I., and Gegel, H. L., 1983, Metal Forming: Fundamentals and Applications, American Society for Metals, Ohio.
Kwak,  D. Y., Cheon,  J. S., and Im,  Y. T., 2002, “Remeshing for Metal Forming Simulations—Part I: Two-Dimensional Quadrilateral Remeshing,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 53, pp. 2463–2500.
Kwak,  D. Y., and Im,  Y. T., 2002, “Remeshing for Metal Forming Simulations-Part II: Three-Dimensional Hexahedral Mesh Generation,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 53, pp. 2501–2528.
Lee,  G. A., Kwak,  D. Y., Kim,  S. Y., and Im,  Y. T., 2002, “Analysis and Design of Flat-Die Hot Extrusion Process 1. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 44, pp. 915–934.
Lee,  G. A., and Im,  Y. T., 2002, “Analysis and Design of Flat-Die Hot Extrusion Process 2. Numerical Design of Bearing Lengths,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 44, pp. 935–946.
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International Cold Forging Group, 1996, Cold Forgeable Steels.

Figures

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Definition of the geometry of a spur gear and its graphical representation
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The standard design geometry of the die for cold forward extrusion of a spur gear with a mandrel
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The investigated process variables in cold forward extrusion of a spur gear
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Comparison of the cross-sectional grid distortions between FE simulations and experiments available in the literature: (a) extrusion without a mandrel 10 and (b) extrusion with a mandrel 11
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The variation of (a) the ratio of total teeth area to gear area and (b) predicted forming loads according to teeth number
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The overall deformed shapes and distributions of the effective strain in cold forward extrusion of a spur gear with the (a) 7 and (b) 18 teeth number
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The predicted distributions of the effective strain in forward extrusion with entrance angles of (a) 30°, (b) 45°, and (c) 60°
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Contour plots of the velocity distribution in the z direction for various shear friction factors of (a) 0.1, (b) 0.2, (c) 0.3, and (d) 0.6
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Comparison of deformed shapes of the workpiece obtained from FE simulations with variations of the billet radius
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Distributions of the effective strain obtained from FE simulations with variations of the mandrel radius of (a) 20 mm, (b) 30 mm, and (c) 35 mm
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FE simulation results for complete filling of a tooth according to the geometric ratio of a spur gear: (a) the area ratio between the total teeth and a gear and (b) the area ratio between a gear and root
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Relationship between the determined design parameter ERr/o and complete filling status of a tooth

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