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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Spatially Resolved Characterization of Residual Stress Induced by Micro Scale Laser Shock Peening

[+] Author and Article Information
Hongqiang Chen, Y. Lawrence Yao, Jeffrey W. Kysar

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 126(2), 226-236 (Jul 08, 2004) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1751189 History: Received July 01, 2003; Revised October 01, 2003; Online July 08, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Clauer, A. H., and Holbrook, J. H., 1981, “Effects of Laser Induced Shock Waves on Metals,” Shock Waves and High Strain Phenomena in Metals-Concepts and Applications, New York, Plenum, pp. 675–702.
Zhang, W., and Yao, Y. L., 2000, “Improvement of Laser Induced Residual Stress Distributions via Shock Waves,” Proc. ICALEO’00, Laser Materials Processing, Vol. 89, pp. E183–192.
Zhang,  W., and Yao,  Y. L., 2002, “Micro Scale Laser Shock Processing of Metallic Components,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 124(2), pp. 369–378.
Noyan,  I. C., Jordan-Sweet,  J. L., Liniger,  E. G., and Kaldor,  S. K., 1998, “Characterization of Substrate/Thin-film Interfaces with X-ray Microdiffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 72(25), pp. 3338–3340.
Noyan,  I. C., Wang,  P.-C., Kaldor,  S. K., and Jordan-Sweet,  J. L., 1999, “Deformation Field in Single-crystal Semiconductor Substrates Caused by Metallization Features,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 74(16), pp. 2352–2354.
Zhang, W., and Yao, Y. L., 2001, “Feasibility Study of Inducing Desirable Residual Stress Distribution in Laser Micromachining,” Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME (NAMRC XXIX) 2001 pp. 413–420.
Wang,  P.-C., Noyan,  I. C., Kaldor,  S. K., Jordan-Sweet,  J. L., Liniger,  E. G., and Hu,  C.-K., 2000, “Topographic Measurement of Electromigration-induced Stress Gradients in Aluminum Conductor Lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 76(25), pp. 3726–3728.
Erko, A. I., Aristov, V. V., and Vidal, B., 1996, Diffraction X-ray Optics, Philadelphia, Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd, pp. 2–15.
Cargill,  G. S., Hwang,  K., Lam,  J. W., Wang,  P.-C., Linger,  E., and Noyan,  I. C., 1995, “Simulations and Experiments on Capillary Optics for X-ray Microbeams,” SPIE, 2516, pp. 120–134.
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Cullity, B. D., 1978, Elements of X-ray Diffraction, London, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Second edition, pp. 268–270.
Noyan, I. C., Wang, P.-C., Kaldor, S. K., and Jordan-Sweet, J. L., 2000, “Divergence Effects in Monochromatic X-ray Microdiffraction Using Tapered Capillary Optics,” Review of Scientific Instruments, 71 (5), pp. 1991–2000.
Ungar,  T., , 1984, “X-ray Line-Broadening Study of the Dislocation Cell Structure in Deformed [001]-Orientated Copper Single Crystals,” Acta Metall., 32(3), pp. 332–342.
Noyan, I. C., and Cohen, J. B., 1987, Residual Stress-Measurement by Diffraction and Interpretation, New York, Springer-Verlag Inc., pp. 168–175.
Chen,  H. Q., and Yao,  Y. L., 2003, “Modeling Schemes, Transiency, and Strain Measurement for Microscale Laser Shock Processing,” SME J. Manuf. Proc., in press.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Volume fraction ratio of cell wall and cell interior (experimentally determined via dividing areas under sub-profiles Ic and Iw by profile I, respectively)
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Incident X-ray micro beam profile Full width at half maximum intensity (FWHM)≈0.05°(±0.025°)
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θ  and χ scan of sample/stage
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Spatial distribution of X-ray profile for (002) reflection of Al (001) sample Unsmoothed curve: raw profile, Smoothed curve: fitted profile, Dashed curves: two fitted sub profiles, Vertical line: ideal Bragg angle for Al (002) reflection (Diffraction intensity normalized).
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Detailed view of decomposition of an asymmetric line profile into the sum of two symmetric sub-profiles, diffraction intensity normalized (Sub profile Ic: cell interior; and Sub profile Iw: cell wall)
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Spatial distribution of residual stress in Al (001) sample surface based on the X-ray diffraction measurement
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Measurement scheme II: measuring {222} reflections
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Comparsion of spatial residual stress distribution on sample surface by two X-ray measurement schemes and FEM simulation. (Laser beam diameter is 12 microns, pulse duration is 50ns, laser pulse energy=300 μJ). (a) Al (110) sample (b) Cu (110) sample
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Spatial distribution of X-ray profile for (220) reflection of Al (110) sample Unsmoothed curve: raw profile, Smoothed curve: fitted profile, Dashed curves: two fitted sub profiles, Vertical line: ideal Bragg angle for Al (220) reflection (Diffraction intensity normalized).
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Spatial distribution of X-ray profile for (220) reflection of Cu (110) sample Unsmoothed curve: raw profile, Smoothed curve: fitted profile, Dashed curves: two fitted sub profiles, Vertical line: ideal Bragg angle for Cu (220) reflection (Diffraction intensity normalized).
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Volume fraction ratio of cell wall and cell interior (experimentally determined via dividing areas under sub-profiles Ic and Iw by profile I, respectively)
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Partial dislocation and cross slip formation in FCC metal (a) Partial dislocation direction and magnitude in FCC metal (b) Cross slip formation in FCC metal
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Deformed geometry comparison of shocked line for Aluminum sample (a) Measurement of shocked line geometry using AFM (Al, scan area=100×100 μm, data scale=1 μm) (b) FEM simulation of depth deformation (in meter) in shock penned sample. (Al, laser energy=260 uJ, 100 μm in thickness, 250 μm in width, and 500 μm in length, deformation factor=5 for viewing clarity) (c) Comparsion of measured and simulated shocked line profiles for Al sample. Laser beam diameter is 12 microns, pulse duration is 50 ns, laser pulse energy=300 uJ.
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X-ray micro-diffraction measurement arrangement (measurement points are along a line perpendicular to a shocked line, measurements were carried out±100 μm from the center of shocked line, d=5 μm,within±20 μm from the shocked line center, d=10 μm, elsewhere)
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Typical Laue pattern image: Al (001) single crystal sample
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Shocked line direction with respect to crystalline orientation (Laser pulse energy=300 μJ, pulse duration=50 ns, pulse number=3 at each location, pulse repetition rate=1 KHz, pulse spacing=25 μm)

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