End Milling of Elastomers—Fixture Design and Tool Effectiveness for Material Removal

[+] Author and Article Information
Albert J. Shih

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109  

Mark A. Lewis, John S. Strenkowski

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 126(1), 115-123 (Mar 18, 2004) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1616951 History: Received April 01, 2002; Revised May 01, 2003; Online March 18, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


ASTM D1566-00, 2000, Standard Terminology Relating to Rubber, American Society for Testing of Materials.
Harper, C., Ed., 1975, Handbook of Plastics and Elastomers, McGraw-Hill.
Gere, J. M., and Timoshenko, S. P., 1997, Mechanics of Materials, 4th Ed., PWS Pub.
Incopera, F. P., and DeWitt, D. P., 1996, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th Ed., Wiley.
Jin,  M., and Murakawa,  M., 1998, “High-Speed Milling of Rubber (1st Report)-Fundamental Experiments and Considerations for Improvement of Work Accuracy,” Journal of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, 64(6), pp. 897–901.
White,  L., 1995, “Recycling Rubber-Technologies Add Value to Scrap,” European Rubber Journal, 177(2), pp. 24–25.
McLeish,  A., 1995, “An Improved Process for the Cryogenic Grinding of Flexible Polyurethane Form,” British Plastics and Rubber, Nov., pp. 42–43.
Wang,  Z. Y., Rajurkar,  K. P., and Murugappan,  M., 1996, “Cryogenic PCBN Turning of Ceramic (Si3N4),” Wear, 195, pp. 1–6.
Wang,  Z. Y., and Rajurkar,  K. P., 1997, “Wear of CBN Tool in Turning of Silicon Nitride with Cryogenic Cooling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 37(3), pp. 319–326.
Evans,  C., 1991, “Cryogenic Diamond Turning of Stainless Steel,” CIRP Ann., 40(1), pp. 571–575.
Bhattacharyya,  D., Allen,  M. N., and Mander,  S. J., 1993, “Cryogenic Machining of Kevlar Composites,” Mater. Manuf. Processes, 8(6), pp. 631–651.
Hocheng,  H., and Pan,  C. T., 1999, “The Effects of Cryogenic Surroundings on the Thermal-Induced Damage in Laser Grooving of Fiber-Reinforced Plastic,” Mach. Sci. Technol., 3, pp. 77–90.
Zhao,  Z., and Hong,  S. Y., 1992, “Cooling Strategies for Cryogenic Machining from a Materials Viewpoint,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 1(5), pp. 669–678.
Ding,  Y., and Hong,  S. Y., 1998, “Improvement of Chip Breaking in Machining Low Carbon Steel by Cryogenically Precooling the Workpiece,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 120, pp. 76–83.
Paul,  S., and Chattopadhyay,  A. B., 1996, “Determination and Control of Grinding Zone Temperature under Cryogenic Cooling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 36(4), pp. 491–501.
Paul,  S., and Chattopadhyay,  A. B., 1997, “Cryogenic Cooling in Grinding—A New Concept,” European Journal Mech Eng, 42(3), pp. 131–135.
Hong,  S., 2001, “Economical and Ecological Cryogenic Machining,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 123, pp. 331–338.
Dhar,  N. R., Paul,  S., and Chattopadhyay,  A. B., 2002, “Role of Cryogenic Cooling on Cutting Temperature in Turning Steel,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 124, pp. 146–154.
Altintas, Y., 2000, Manufacturing Automation: Metal Cutting Mechanics, Machine Tool Vibrations, and CNC Design, Cambridge University Press.
Martellotti,  M. E., 1941, “Analysis of the Milling Process,” Trans. ASME, 63, pp. 677–700.
Cook, R. D., Malkus, D. S., and Plesha, M. E., 1999, Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis, Wiley.
Shih, A. J., Lewis, M. A., Luo, J., and Strenkowski, J. S., “Chip Morphology and Forces in End Milling of Elastomers,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., (companion manuscript submitted).
Strenkowski, J. S., Shih, A. J., Lewis, M. A., Rodkwan, S., and Poirier, D. R., 2002, “Machining of Elastomers,” 2002 NSF Design, Service and Manufacturing Grantees and Research Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan. 7–10.
Strenkowski, J. S., Shih, A. J., Rodkwan, S., and Lewis, M. A., 2003, “Machining of Elastomers—Experimental and Numerical Investigation,” 2003 NSF Design, Service and Manufacturing Grantees and Research Conference, Birmingham, Alabama, Jan. 6–9.


Grahic Jump Location
Results of the preliminary elastomer end milling test that failed to make a clear-cut groove on an elastomer workpiece with steel cable reinforcement (a) side view and (b) front view
Grahic Jump Location
Up-, down-, and mixed-cut end mills, (a) up-cut end mill, (b) down-cut end mill, (c) mixed-cut end mill, (d) up-cut end smilling setup, (e) down-cut end milling setup, and (f ) mixed-cut end milling setup
Grahic Jump Location
The deformation of elastomer workpiece while machining using an up-cut end mill
Grahic Jump Location
Fixture for end milling of elastomer (a) base and top plate with grooves and (b) top view of the fixture with the elastomer workpiece in place
Grahic Jump Location
Three-dimensional finite element meshes and boundary conditions for the elastomer workpiece machined by 3.18 mm diameter end mill
Grahic Jump Location
Three-dimensional finite element meshes for the elastomer workpiece machined by end milling with (a) 6.35 mm and (b) 12.7 mm diameter tools
Grahic Jump Location
Loading on the finite element analysis (a) assuming the traction stress is uniformly distributed on the surface of an element in the Z-direction, (b) the consistent nodal load at the eight nodes on the surface of a hexahedral element with the element resultant force, Fe, on the surface, and (c) assembled force vectors on the quarter cylinder surface
Grahic Jump Location
Thirteen milling tools (router bits) used in the elastomer machining experiments (HSS: High Speed Steel, Carbide: WC in Co matrix)
Grahic Jump Location
Examples of milled groove condition levels for an elastomer workpiece
Grahic Jump Location
Grooves machined in Experiments I and III
Grahic Jump Location
Some grooves machined in Experiments V and VII




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In