Developments in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS): A Manufacturing Perspective

[+] Author and Article Information
Srinivas A. Tadigadapa

Department of Electrical Engineering, The Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802

Nader Najafi

Integrated Sensing Systems Inc., 387 Airport Industrial Drive, Ypsilanti, MI 48198

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 125(4), 816-823 (Nov 11, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1617286 History: Received February 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online November 11, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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An excellent compilation of articles dealing with future developments in MEMS are available in this issue, 1996, Sens. Actuators A, 56 , pp. 1–197.
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Baltes,  Henry, 1993, “Microsensors Between Physics and Technology,” Phys. Scr., T49, pp. 449–453.
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Tadigadapa, Srinivas, and Massoud-Ansari, Sonbol, 1999, “Applications of High-performance MEMS Pressure Sensors using Dissolved Wafer Process (DWP),” Proceedings of MEMS/MST/Microsystems Session, Sensors Expo, Baltimore.
Ashraf, H., Bhardwaj, J. K., Hall, S., Hopkins, J., Hynes, A. M., Johnston, I., McAuley, S., Nicholls, G., Atabo, L., Ryan, M. E., and Watcham, S. C., 2000, “Advances in Deep Anisotropic Silicon Etch Processing for MEMS,” Proc. 5th Natl. Conf. on Sensors and Microsystems, Lecce, Italy.
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Baltes,  H., 1993, “CMOS as Sensor Technology,” Sens. Actuators A, 37–38, pp. 51–56.
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Baltes,  Henry, 1993, “CMOS as Sensor Technology,” Sens. Actuators A, 37–38, pp. 51–56.
Gianchandani,  Y. B., and Najafi,  K., 1992, “A Bulk Silicon Dissolved Wafer Process for Microelectromechanical Devices,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 1, pp. 77–85.
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Malshe,  A. P., O’Neal,  C., Singh,  S. B., Brown,  W. D., Eaton,  W. P., and Miller,  W. M., 1999, “Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS,” International Journal of Microcircuits and Electronic Packaging, 22, pp. 233–41.
Butler,  J. T., Bright,  V. M., and Comtois,  J. H., 1998, “Multichip Module Packaging of Microelectromechanical Systems,” Sens. Actuators A, 70, pp. 15–22.
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Minami, K., Moriuchi, T., and Esashi, M., 1995, “Cavity Pressure Control for Critical Damping of Packaged Micromechanical Devices,” Proc. 8th Intl. Conf. on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 240–243.
Von Arx, J., Ziaie, B., Dokmeci, M., and Najafi, K., 1995, “Hermeticity of Glass-silicon Packages with On-chip Feedthroughs,” Proc. 8th Intl. Conf. on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, Stockholm, Sweden.
de Reus,  R., , 1998, “Reliability of Industrial Packaging for Microsystems,” Microelectron. Reliab., 38, pp. 1251–1260.
Hruby, J., Kassicieh, S. K., and Walsh, S. T., 2000, “Commercialization of Disruptive Technologies: The Process of Discontinuous Innovations,” Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE Engineering Management Society, 2000, pp. 335–339.
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Punkka,  E., 1997, “Silicon Micromachined Sensors: From Lab to Fab,” Future Fab International, 3, pp. 65–68.
Frazier,  A. B., Warrington,  R. O., and Friedrich,  C., 1995, “The Miniaturization Technologies: Past, Present, and Future,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 42, 423–430.


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Size (Linear dimension) dependence of common forces and phenomena
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The top view of the ultra-sensitive, vacuum absolute pressure sensor
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Cost of production of MEMS chip as a function of the number of wafer and the number of chips per wafer. Further, the following assumptions have been made: Non-recurring Development Cost of $1 Million, and Production Cost/Wafer of $1000.
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Schematic diagram of Dissolved Wafer Process
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Calculated increase in cavity pressure as a function of time for a 4 mm×100 μm high hermetically sealed cavity
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Performance of the main and reference capacitors measured after 3.5 million cycles shows no detectable variations in the deflection sensitivity of the diaphragm
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Evaluation of protective coatings by measuring the etch (corrosion) depths in an accelerated gaseous environment
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Projected sales of MEMS devices by technology area. (Courtesy: System Planning Corporation Report 1999).



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