Design of a Slot-Coater-Based Layered-Composites Manufacturing System

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Haberer, C. B. Park, B. Benhabib

Computer Integrated Manufacturing Laboratory (CIMLab), Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3G8

G. Zak

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 e-mail: zak@me.queensu.ca

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 125(3), 564-576 (Jul 23, 2003) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1581888 History: Received July 01, 2001; Revised November 01, 2002; Online July 23, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zak,  G., Sela,  M. N., Vevko,  V., Park,  C. B., and Benhabib,  B., 1999, “Layered-Manufacturing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 121, pp. 448–456.
Zak,  G., Park,  C. B., and Benhabib,  B., 2000, “Mechanical Properties of Short-Fiber Layered Composites,” Rapid Prototyping J., 6 (2), pp. 107–118.
Suh, N. P., 1990, The Principles of Design, New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc.
Agarwall, B. D., and Broutman, L. J., 1990, “Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites,” 2nd ed., New York, NY, John Wiley & Sons.
Renault,  T., Ogale,  A. A., Dooly,  R. L., Bagchi,  A., and Jara-Almonte,  C. C., 1991, “Photolithography for Composites Manufacturing: Continuous Glass Fiber/Polyacrylate Composites,” SAMPE Q., January, pp. 19–25.
Renault,  T., and Ogale,  A. A., 1991, “3-D Photolithography for Composite Development: Discontinuous Reinforcements,” SAMPE Q., October, pp. 28–38.
Barlage, W. B., Jara-Almonet, C. C., Bagchi, A., Ogale, A. A., and Dodey, R. L., 1992, “Fiber/Resin Composite Manufacturing Using Solid Freeform Fabrication,” Third International Conference on Rapid Prototyping, Dayton, Ohio, pp. 15–24.
Charan, R., Renault, T., Ogale, A. A., and Bagchi, A., 1994, “Automated Fiber-Reinforced Composite Prototypes,” Fifth International Conference on Rapid Prototyping, Dayton, Ohio, pp. 91–97.
Klosterman, D., Chartoff, R., Priore, B., Osborne, N., and Graves, G., 1996, “Structural Composites via Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM),” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium Proceedings, Austin, Texas, pp. 105–115.
Brown,  J. H., and Colton,  J. S., 2000, “A Machine System for the Rapid Production of Composite Structures,” Polym. Compos., 21 (1), pp. 124–133.
Zak,  G., Chan,  A. Y. F., Park,  C. B., and Benhabib,  B., 1996, “Viscosity Analysis of Photopolymer and Glass-Fiber Composites for Rapid Layered Manufacturing,” Rapid Prototyping J., 2 (3), pp. 16–23.
Gray,  R. W., Donald,  G. B., and Bohn,  H. G., 1998, “Effects of Processing Conditions on Short TLCP Fiber Reinforced FDM Parts,” Rapid Prototyping J., 4 (1), pp. 14–25.
Zhong,  W., Li,  F., Zhang,  Z., Song,  L., and Li,  Z., 2001, “Short Fiber Reinforced Composites for Fused Deposition Modelling,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 301 (2), pp. 125–130.
Klosterman, D., Priore, B., and Chartoff, R., 1997, “Laminated Object Manufacturing of Polymer Matrix Composites,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Rapid Prototyping, San Francisco, CA, pp. 283–292.
Klosterman, D., Chartoff, R., Flach, L., and Bryant, E., 2000, “Model-based Control of Cure Distribution in Polymer Composite Parts Made by Laminated Object Fabrication (LOF),” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, University of Texas at Austin.
Ditl,  P., and Nauman,  B. E., 1992, “Off-Bottom Suspension of Thin Sheets,” AIChE J., 38 (6, pp. 959–965.
Tay,  M., Deutchlander,  B., and Tatterson,  B., 1984, “Suspension Characteristics of Large Cylinders in Agitated Tanks,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 29 cited in Ditl and Nauman 1992 .
Nienow, A. W., 1997, “The Suspension of Solid Particles,” Mixing in the Process Industries, 2nd ed., Harnby, N., Edwards, M. F., and Nienow, A. E., eds., London, Butterworth Heinemann.
Bohnet,  M., and Niesmak,  G., 1980, “Distribution of Solids in Stirred Suspensions,” German Chemical Engineering, 3 , pp. 57–65.
McDonough, R. J., 1992, Mixing for the Process Industries, New York, NY, Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Chudacek,  M. W., 1984, “Does Your Tank Bottom Have the Right Shape?” Chem. Eng, October, pp. 79–83.
Ibrahim,  S., and Nienow,  A. W., 1996, “Particle Suspension in the Turbulent Regime,” Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., 74, pp. 679–688.
Ranade,  V. V., Mishra,  V. P., Saraph,  V. S., Deshpande,  G. B., and Joshi,  J. B., 1992, “Comparison of Axial Flow Impellers Using a Laser Doppler Anemometer,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 31, pp. 2370–2379.
Armenante,  P. M., and Nagamine,  E. U., 1997, “Effect of Low Off-Bottom Impeller Clearance on the Minimum Agitation Speed for Complete Suspension of Solids in Stirred Tanks,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 53 (9), pp. 1757–1775.
Tiljander,  P., and Theliander,  H., 1993, “Power consumption and solid suspensions in completely filled vessels,” Chem. Eng. Commun., 124, pp. 1–14.
Bakker,  A., and Myers,  K., 1998, “Solids Suspension with Up-Pumping Pitched Blade and High-Efficiency Impellers,” Can. J. Chem. Eng., 76 (3), pp. 433–440.
Levins,  D. M., and Glastonbury,  J. R., 1972, “Application of Kolmogoroff’s Theory to Particle-Liquid Mass Transfer in Agitated Vessels,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 27, pp. 537–543.
Sullivan,  T. S., Middleman,  S., and Keunings,  R., 1987, “Use of Finite-Element Method to Interpret Rheological Effects in Blade Coating,” AIChE J., 33(12), pp. 2047–2056.
Wang, F. F. Y., ed., 1976, Treatise on Materials Science and Technology: Volume 9—Ceramic Fabrication Processes, Academic Press, New York.
Giavedoni,  M. D., and Satia,  F. A., 1992, “Interfacial Viscosity in Viscous Free Surface Flows: A Sample Case,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 31 (9), pp. 2222–2231.
Wang, F. J., and Domoto, G. A., 1995, “Flow Stability of Slot Coating—A Numerical Study,” Proceedings of the 1995 ASME/JSME Fluids Engineering and Laser Anemometry Conference and Exhibition, Hilton Head, SC, Vol. 217, pp. 143–150.
Renap,  K., and Kruth,  J. P., 1995, “Recoating Issues in Stereolithography,” Rapid Prototyping J., 1 (3), pp. 4–16.
Haberer, M., 2001, “Fiber-Resin Mixing and Layer Formation Subsystems for the Rapid Manufacturing of Short-Fiber-Reinforced Parts, M. A. Sc. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto.


Grahic Jump Location
Distribution of composite mixture at the entrance of the slot
Grahic Jump Location
Nozzle-array configuration
Grahic Jump Location
Example of a photomicrograph used in studies of fiber-length distribution
Grahic Jump Location
Fiber-length distribution for unprocessed fibers (MFX)
Grahic Jump Location
Fiber-length distribution after 30 minutes agitation (MFX)
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of impeller speed on fiber volume fraction (error bars indicate range of measurements)
Grahic Jump Location
Volume-fraction-experiment test specimen (all dimensions in mm)
Grahic Jump Location
Steps of the proposed RLM process
Grahic Jump Location
Fiber-resin mixing subsystem
Grahic Jump Location
Axial (a) and radial (b) impellers
Grahic Jump Location
A typical industrial slot coater
Grahic Jump Location
The composite liquid coater forms a wide film
Grahic Jump Location
Placement of parts in the vat for volume-fraction experiments: (a) parts placed between nozzle paths and (b) parts placed in line with nozzle paths
Grahic Jump Location
Plot of normalized volume fraction (υf2f1) for slot widths of 2 mm and 0.6 mm (error bars indicate range of measurements)
Grahic Jump Location
Layer quality test specimen (all dimensions in mm)
Grahic Jump Location
Layer profiles for composite parts made on (a) original system (point deposition) and (b) the new system (slot coating)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In