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TECHNICAL PAPERS

On the Critical Plunger Speed and Three-Dimensional Effects in High-Pressure Die Casting Injection Chambers

[+] Author and Article Information
J. López, F. Faura

Dept. de Ingenierı́a de Materiales y Fabricación, ETSII, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, E-30202 Cartagena, Spain.

J. Hernández, P. Gómez

Dept. de Mecánica, ETSII, UNED, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.e-mail: pgomez@ind.uned.es

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 125(3), 529-537 (Jul 23, 2003) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1580525 History: Received January 01, 2002; Revised December 01, 2002; Online July 23, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Avalle,  M., Belingardi,  G., Cavatorta,  M. P., and Doglione,  R., 2002, “Casting Defects and Fatigue Strength of a Die Cast Aluminum Alloy: A Comparison between Standard Specimens and Production Components,” Int. J. Fatigue, 24, pp. 1–9.
Campbell, J., 1991, Castings, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
Karni, Y., 1991, “Selection of Process Variables for Die Casting,” PhD thesis, The Ohio State University, Ohio.
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Thome,  M. C., and Brevick,  J. R., 1993, “Modeling Fluid Flow in Horizontal Cold Chamber Diecasting Shot Sleeves,” AFS Transactions, 101 , pp. 343–348.
Thome, M. C., and Brevick, J. R., 1995, “Optimal Slow Shot Velocity Profiles for Cold Chamber Die Casting,” NADCA Congress and Exposition, Indianapolis, paper T95-024.
Tszeng,  T. C., and Chu,  Y. L., 1994, “A Study of Wave Formation in Shot Sleeve of a Die Casting Machine,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 116(2), pp. 175–182.
López,  J., Hernández,  J., Faura,  F., and Trapaga,  G., 2000, “Shot Sleeve Wave Dynamics in the Slow Phase of Die Casting Injection,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 122(2), pp. 349–356.
Lindberg, B., Hansen, P. N., and Hansen, S. F., 1991, “High Speed Filming of Mold Filling Process of Al Alloys in High Pressure Die Casting,” Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes V, M. Rappaz, M. R. Özgü and K. W. Mahin, eds., Warrendale, PA, TMS, pp. 763–769.
Garber,  L. W., 1982, “Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Observation of Air Entrapment During Cold Chamber Filling,” Die Casting Engineer, 26(3), pp. 14–22.
Backer, G., and Sant, F., 1997, “Using Finite Element Simulation for the Development of Shot Sleeve Velocity Profiles,” NADCA Congress and Exposition, Minneapolis, paper T97-014.
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Khayat,  R. E., 1998, “A Three-Dimensional Boundary Element Approach to Confined Free-Surface Flow as Applied to Die Casting,” Eng. Anal. Boundary Elem., 22, pp. 83–102.
Hernández,  J., López,  J., Faura,  F., and Gómez,  P., 2003, “Analysis of the Flow in the Injection Chamber of a High Pressure Die Casting Machine,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 125(2), pp. 315–324.
Faura,  F., López,  J., and Hernández,  J., 2001, “On the Optimum Plunger Acceleration Law in the Slow Shot Phase of Pressure Die Casting Machines,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 41(2), pp. 173–191.
Flemings, M. C., 1974, Solidification Processing, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.
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Hernández,  J., López,  J., and Faura,  F., 2001, “Influence of Unsteady Effects on Air Venting in Pressure Die Casting,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 123(4), pp. 884–892.
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Hernández, J., Gómez, P., Crespo, A., López, J., and Faura, F., 2001, “Breaking Waves in a High-Pressure Die-Casting Injection Chamber,” 4th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Figures

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Sketch of a horizontal cold chamber die casting machine (a) slow shot stage (b) fast shot stage
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Schematic representation of the problem and coordinate system. Symmetry plane (left) and cross section (right) of the chamber.
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Schematic representation of the computational mesh in the injection chamber
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Grid sensitivity of results for wave surface profiles at different instants. Case with the plunger acceleration law of Eq. (7) with c0=(gh0)1/2,Al0/A=0.2,L/l=1,L/H=9 and H=5.08 cm. (a) Wave profiles in the symmetry plane of the injection chamber; (b) Free surface profiles at the plunger face.
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Wave surface profiles in an injection chamber of circular cross section and length L=9H, for initial filling fractions Al0/A=0.2, 0.374 and 0.5, and the plunger acceleration law of Eq. (6). Equation (14) is satisfied, with c0=(gHAl0/A)1/2 in Eq. (15).
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Wave surface profiles in an injection chamber of circular cross section and length L=9H, for initial filling fractions Al0/A=0.2, 0.374 and 0.5, and the plunger acceleration law of Eq. (7), with l=L and c0=(gHAl0/A)1/2
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Influence of the maximum velocity reached by the plunger on the free-surface profile near the chamber ceiling, for the plunger acceleration law of Eq. (7), with l=L and c0=(gAl0/T0)1/2, in a chamber with L/H=9. a) Al0/A=0.2; b) Al0/A=0.5
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Comparison between the values predicted by the shallow-water and CFD models for the plunger speed required for the molten metal to reach the chamber ceiling, UH, and the maximum speed, Umax, that, according to the CFD model, the plunger can reach without causing the formation of wall jets along the ceiling. (a) Plunger acceleration law of Eq. (6); (b) Plunger acceleration law of Eq. (7).
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Comparison between wave surface profiles in the symmetry plane of a chamber with a circular cross section obtained from the CFD and shallow-water models, and the analytical profiles predicted by the shallow-water model in an equivalent two-dimensional chamber configuration, for different initial filling fractions and the plunger acceleration law of Eq. (7) with L/l=1

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