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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Finite Element Investigation of Friction Condition in a Backward Extrusion of Aluminum Alloy

[+] Author and Article Information
Yong-Taek Im, Seong-Hoon Kang, Jae-Seung Cheon

Computer Aided Materials Processing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, ME3227, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701, Korea

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 125(2), 378-383 (Apr 15, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1559165 History: Received July 01, 2001; Revised November 01, 2002; Online April 15, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Male,  A. T., and Cockcroft,  M. G., 1964, “A Method for the Determination of the Coefficient of Friction of Metals Under Conditions of Bulk Plastic Deformation,” J. Inst. Met., 93, pp. 38–46.
Nagpal,  V., Lahoti,  G. D., and Altan,  T., 1978, “A Numerical Method for Simultaneous Prediction of Metal Flow and Temperature in Upset Forging of Rings,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 100, pp. 413–420.
Chen, C. C., and Kobayashi, S., 1978, “Rigid-plastic Finite-element Analysis of Ring Compression,” H. Armen and R. F. Jones, Jr., eds., Applications of Numerical Methods of Forming Processes, AMD, New York, Vol. 28, pp. 163–174.
Petersen,  S. B., Martins,  P. A. F., and Bay,  N., 1998, “An Alternative Ring-Test Geometry for the Evaluation of Friction under Low Normal Pressure,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 79, pp. 14–24.
Im,  Y. T., Vardan,  O., Shen,  G., and Altan,  T., 1988, “Investigation of Metal Flow in Non-Isothermal Forging Using Ring and Spike Test,” CIRP Ann., 37, pp. 225–230.
Isogawa,  S., Kimura,  A., and Tozawa,  Y., 1992, “Proposal of an Evaluation Method on Lubrication,” CIRP Ann., 41, pp. 263–266.
Shen,  G., Vedhanayagam,  A., Kropp,  E., and Altan,  T., 1992, “A Method for Evaluating Friction Using a Backward Extrusion-type Forging,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 33, pp. 109–123.
Nishimura,  T., Sato,  T., and Tada,  Y., 1995, “Evaluation of Frictional Conditions for Various Tool Materials and Lubricants using the Injection-Upsetting Method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 53, pp. 726–735.
Sanchez, T. R., Weinmann, K., and Story, J. M., 1985, “A Friction Test for Extrusion based on Combined Forward and Backward Flow,” Proceedings of the 13th North American Manufacturing Research Conference, pp. 110–117.
Ohinishi, K., Gotho, H., Wadabayashi, R., Idemizu, T., and Shimabara, H., 1986, “Evaluation of Lubricants for Warm Forging By Forward-Backward Extrusion,” The Proceedings of the 1986 Japanese Spring Conference for the Technology of Plasticity, pp. 123–126.
Popilek,  M. E., Weinmann,  K. J., and Majlessi,  S. A., 1992, “A Friction Test based on Combined Backward Can-Forward Bar Extrusion with Emphasis on Backward Flow,” Trans. NAMRI/SME, 20, pp. 25–31.
Buschhausen,  A., Weinmann,  K., Lee,  J. Y., and Altan,  T., 1992, “Evaluation of Lubrication and Friction in Cold Forging Using a Double Backward-Extrusion Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 33, pp. 95–108.
Nakamura,  T., Bay,  N., and Zhang,  Z., 1998, “FEM Simulation of a Friction Testing Method Based on Combined Forward Conical Can-Backward Straight Can Extrusion,” ASME J. Tribol., 120, pp. 716–723.
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Figures

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Dimensions of the axisymmetric (a) punch and (b) die used for the tip test (dimensions in mm)
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Stress-strain curve obtained from the compression test of an aluminum alloy AL6061-O
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Example of FE simulation (a) conditions and (b) results showing the deformed shape and distribution of effective strain
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Load vs. stroke curve obtained from the FE simulation with shear friction factor of 0.1
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Load vs. radial tip distance curves obtained from FE simulations with shear friction factors ranging from 0.0 to 0.9 and experiments using various lubricants
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Dependence of radial tip distance and maximum forming load on varied x with mfp fixed as 0.5
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The procedure of obtaining the linear calibration equation for predicting the appropriate shear friction factor
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Load vs. radial tip distance curves depending on the value of x for the various friction conditions of mfp ranging from 0.0 to 0.9
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Comparison of load vs. radial tip distance plots between the experiments and simulations for x=0.6
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Comparison of deformed shapes between the experiment using the lubricant VG100 and simulation using mfp=0.38 and mfd=0.23 at strokes of (a) 4.9 mm and 8.0 mm
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Comparison of load vs. stroke curves between the experiment using VG100 and simulations using various combinations of mfp and mfd
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Experimental results of ring compression tests for various lubricants along with calibration curves

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