Finite Element Investigation of Friction Condition in a Backward Extrusion of Aluminum Alloy

[+] Author and Article Information
Yong-Taek Im, Seong-Hoon Kang, Jae-Seung Cheon

Computer Aided Materials Processing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, ME3227, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701, Korea

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 125(2), 378-383 (Apr 15, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1559165 History: Received July 01, 2001; Revised November 01, 2002; Online April 15, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Male,  A. T., and Cockcroft,  M. G., 1964, “A Method for the Determination of the Coefficient of Friction of Metals Under Conditions of Bulk Plastic Deformation,” J. Inst. Met., 93, pp. 38–46.
Nagpal,  V., Lahoti,  G. D., and Altan,  T., 1978, “A Numerical Method for Simultaneous Prediction of Metal Flow and Temperature in Upset Forging of Rings,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 100, pp. 413–420.
Chen, C. C., and Kobayashi, S., 1978, “Rigid-plastic Finite-element Analysis of Ring Compression,” H. Armen and R. F. Jones, Jr., eds., Applications of Numerical Methods of Forming Processes, AMD, New York, Vol. 28, pp. 163–174.
Petersen,  S. B., Martins,  P. A. F., and Bay,  N., 1998, “An Alternative Ring-Test Geometry for the Evaluation of Friction under Low Normal Pressure,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 79, pp. 14–24.
Im,  Y. T., Vardan,  O., Shen,  G., and Altan,  T., 1988, “Investigation of Metal Flow in Non-Isothermal Forging Using Ring and Spike Test,” CIRP Ann., 37, pp. 225–230.
Isogawa,  S., Kimura,  A., and Tozawa,  Y., 1992, “Proposal of an Evaluation Method on Lubrication,” CIRP Ann., 41, pp. 263–266.
Shen,  G., Vedhanayagam,  A., Kropp,  E., and Altan,  T., 1992, “A Method for Evaluating Friction Using a Backward Extrusion-type Forging,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 33, pp. 109–123.
Nishimura,  T., Sato,  T., and Tada,  Y., 1995, “Evaluation of Frictional Conditions for Various Tool Materials and Lubricants using the Injection-Upsetting Method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 53, pp. 726–735.
Sanchez, T. R., Weinmann, K., and Story, J. M., 1985, “A Friction Test for Extrusion based on Combined Forward and Backward Flow,” Proceedings of the 13th North American Manufacturing Research Conference, pp. 110–117.
Ohinishi, K., Gotho, H., Wadabayashi, R., Idemizu, T., and Shimabara, H., 1986, “Evaluation of Lubricants for Warm Forging By Forward-Backward Extrusion,” The Proceedings of the 1986 Japanese Spring Conference for the Technology of Plasticity, pp. 123–126.
Popilek,  M. E., Weinmann,  K. J., and Majlessi,  S. A., 1992, “A Friction Test based on Combined Backward Can-Forward Bar Extrusion with Emphasis on Backward Flow,” Trans. NAMRI/SME, 20, pp. 25–31.
Buschhausen,  A., Weinmann,  K., Lee,  J. Y., and Altan,  T., 1992, “Evaluation of Lubrication and Friction in Cold Forging Using a Double Backward-Extrusion Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 33, pp. 95–108.
Nakamura,  T., Bay,  N., and Zhang,  Z., 1998, “FEM Simulation of a Friction Testing Method Based on Combined Forward Conical Can-Backward Straight Can Extrusion,” ASME J. Tribol., 120, pp. 716–723.
Nakamura, T., Zhang, Z. L., and Kimura, H., 1996, “Evaluation of Various Lubricants for Cold Forging Processes of Different Aluminum Alloys,” ICFG Do. No 2/96.
Im,  Y. T., Cheon,  J. S., and Kang,  S. H., 2002, “Determination of Friction Condition by Geometrical Measurement of Backward Extruded Aluminum Alloy Specimen,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 124, pp. 409–415.
CAMPform2D Users Manual version 1.5, 2002, http://camp.kaist.ac.kr/campseries.
Kim,  H. S., Im,  Y. T., and Geiger,  M., 1999, “Prediction of Ductile Fracture in Cold Forging of Aluminum Alloy,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 121, pp. 336–344.
Lee,  C. H., and Kobayashi,  S., 1973, “New Solutions to Rigid-Plastic Deformation Problems Using a Matrix Method,” ASME J. Ind., 95(3), pp. 865–873.
Kobayashi, S., Oh, S. I., and Altan, T., 1989, Metal Forming and the Finite Element Method, Oxford University Press, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Dimensions of the axisymmetric (a) punch and (b) die used for the tip test (dimensions in mm)
Grahic Jump Location
Stress-strain curve obtained from the compression test of an aluminum alloy AL6061-O
Grahic Jump Location
Example of FE simulation (a) conditions and (b) results showing the deformed shape and distribution of effective strain
Grahic Jump Location
Load vs. stroke curve obtained from the FE simulation with shear friction factor of 0.1
Grahic Jump Location
Load vs. radial tip distance curves obtained from FE simulations with shear friction factors ranging from 0.0 to 0.9 and experiments using various lubricants
Grahic Jump Location
Dependence of radial tip distance and maximum forming load on varied x with mfp fixed as 0.5
Grahic Jump Location
The procedure of obtaining the linear calibration equation for predicting the appropriate shear friction factor
Grahic Jump Location
Load vs. radial tip distance curves depending on the value of x for the various friction conditions of mfp ranging from 0.0 to 0.9
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of load vs. radial tip distance plots between the experiments and simulations for x=0.6
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of deformed shapes between the experiment using the lubricant VG100 and simulation using mfp=0.38 and mfd=0.23 at strokes of (a) 4.9 mm and 8.0 mm
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of load vs. stroke curves between the experiment using VG100 and simulations using various combinations of mfp and mfd
Grahic Jump Location
Experimental results of ring compression tests for various lubricants along with calibration curves



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In