A New Approach for Studying Mechanical Properties of Thin Surface Layers Affected by Manufacturing Processes

[+] Author and Article Information
S. P. Moylan, S. Kompella, S. Chandrasekar, T. N. Farris

Center for Materials Processing and Tribology, Schools of Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1287

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 125(2), 310-315 (Apr 15, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1559161 History: Received December 01, 2000; Revised March 01, 2002; Online April 15, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Blau, P. J., 1986, “Methods and Applications of Microindentation Hardness Testing,” In G. F. Vander Voort, ed. Applied Metallography, pp. 123–137, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Griffiths,  B. J., and Furze,  D. C., 1987, “Tribological Advantages of White Layers Produced by Machining,” ASME J. Tribol., 109, pp. 338–342.
Kahles,  J. F., and Field,  M., 1967–68, “Surface Integrity-A New Requirement for Surfaces Generated by Material-Removal Methods,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 182(3K), pp. 31–45.
Akcan,  S., Shah,  S., Moylan,  S. P., Chhabra,  P. N., Chandrasekar,  S., and Yang,  H. T. Y., 2002, “Formation of White Layers in Steels by Machining and Their Characteristics,” Metall. Mater. Trans., 33A, pp 1245–1254.
Tarasov,  L. P., and Lundberg,  C. O., 1949, “Nature and Detection of Grinding Burn in Steel,” Transactions of the ASM, 41, pp. 893–937.
Zum Gahr, K., 1987, Microstructure and Wear of Materials, Elsevier, New York.
Tönshoff,  H. K., Wobker,  H-G., and Brandt,  D., 1995, “Tribological Aspects of Hard Turning with Ceramic Tools,” Tribol. Trans., 51(2), pp. 163–168.
Tönshoff,  H. K., Wobker,  H. G., and Brandt,  D., 1995, “Hard Turning-Influences on the Workpiece Properties,” Transactions of the NAMRI/SME, 23 , pp. 215–220.
Chou,  Y. Kevin, and Evans,  Chris J., 1998, “Process Effects on White Layer Formation in Hard Turning,” Transactions of NAMRI/SME, 26 , pp. 117–122.
Rinehart, J. S., and J., Pearson, 1963, Explosive Working of Metals, Pergamon Press, New York and London.
Zener,  C., and Hollomon,  J. H., 1944, “Effect of Strain Rate Upon Plastic Flow of Steel,” J. Appl. Phys., 15, pp. 22–32.
Baumann,  G., Fecht,  H. J., and Liebelt,  S., 1996, “Formation of White-Etching Layers on Rail Treads,” Wear, 191, pp. 133–140.
Oliver,  W. C., and Pharr,  G. M., 1992, “An Improved Technique For Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments,” J. Mater. Res., 7(6), pp. 1564–1580.
Leslie, W. C., 1981, The Physical Metallurgy of Steels, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Cahn, R. W., and Haasen, P., eds., 1996, Physical Metallurgy, North-Holland, 3 volume encyclopedic set.
Maklin, S., 1989, Grinding Technology: Theory and Applications of Machining with Abrasives, Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, UK.
Lake, M., Barimani, C., and Lugscheider, E., 1998, “Fundamentals of Nanoindentation and Nanotribology,” MRS Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 522, pp. 311–316.


Grahic Jump Location
Atomic force microscope (AFM) image and AFM profile along a section of a Berkovich indentation, and (b) its associated load-displacement curve. The nominal indenter penetration depth is 500 nm and the actual residual depth of the indent as measured from the AFM line profile is 410 nm.
Grahic Jump Location
Depth profile of variation in hardness along taper-sectioned surface of ground 4340 steel. The ground surface showed visible discoloration characteristic of grinding “burn.”
Grahic Jump Location
Hardness results for a TiN-coated M2 steel sample obtained using the new approach. Indents 1 through 13 were identified as being entirely within the TiN coating, indents 14 through 24 were in the transition zone between the TiN coating and the M2 steel substrate, and indents 25 through 50 were within the M2 steel substrate. The depth into the substrate increases with increasing indent number.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic diagram illustrating taper-sectioned cylindrical specimen comprising of a surface layer (or coating) on a substrate. (a) Plan view and (b) cross-sectional view of cylinder. The indents are made on the sectioned surface shown in (a) either in the form of a 2-D rectangular array or along line A-A inclined at an angle of ∼10° to the specimen edge. The thickness (tm) of the surface layer in the taper section is related to the real or radial thickness (t) of this layer by the formula t=tm cos α=tm w/r.
Grahic Jump Location
Optical micrograph of a typical array of indents in a taper-sectioned AISI 4340 steel sample. The indenter penetration depth is 500 nm and the indent spacing in 20 μm horizontally and 10 μm vertically.
Grahic Jump Location
Optical micrograph showing white layer on taper-sectioned steel. (a) 52100 steel: the white layer (WL), and the bulk microstructure are marked in the figure. Machining conditions: VBmax=300 μm, depth of cut=0.2 mm,feed=0.1 mm/rev, and cutting speed=150 m/min. (b) 4340 steel: The burn layer on the ground surface is seen as a white etching layer very similar to the WL observed on machined steel. The burn layer is seen to extend about 20 μm into the sub-surface.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In