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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Heat Transfer in Friction Stir Welding—Experimental and Numerical Studies

[+] Author and Article Information
Yuh J. Chao

X. Qi, W. Tang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 S. Main, Columbia, SC 29208

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 125(1), 138-145 (Mar 04, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1537741 History: Received May 01, 2001; Revised May 01, 2002; Online March 04, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Tang,  W., Guo,  X., McClure,  J. C., Murr,  L. E., Nunes,  A., 1988, “Heat Input and Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Welding,” Journal of Materials Processing and Manufacturing Science, 7(2), pp. 163–172.
Colegrove, P., Painter, M., Graham, D., and Miller, T., 2000, “3 Dimensional Flow and Thermal Modeling of the Friction Stir Welding Process,” Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Friction Stir Welding, June 26–28, Gothenburg, Sweden.
McClure, J. C., Tang, T., Murr, L. E., Guo, X., and Feng, Z., 1998, “A Thermal Model of Friction Stir Welding,” Trends in Welding Research, J. M. Vitek, et al., eds., Proceedings of the 5th International Conference, Pine Mountain, GA, June 1–5, pp. 590–595.
Gould,  J., and Feng,  Z., 1998, “Heat Flow Model for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys,” Journal of Materials Processing & Manufacturing Science, 7(2), pp. 185–194.
Chao,  Y. J., and Qi,  X., 1998, “Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6,” Journal of Materials Processing & Manufacturing Science, 7, pp. 215–233.
Chao, Y. J., and Qi, X., 1999, “Heat Transfer and Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Friction Stir Joining of AA6061-T6 Plates,” Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Friction Stir Welding, June 14–16, Rockwell Science Center, Thousand Oaks, California.
Russel, M. J., and Shercliff, H. R., 1999, “Analytical Modeling of Microstructure Development in Friction Stir Welding,” Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Friction Stir Welding, June 14–16, Rockwell Science Center, Thousand Oaks, California.
Frigaard, O., Grong, O., Bjorneklett, B., and Midling, O. T., 1999, “Modeling of the Thermal and Microstructure Fields During Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys,” Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Friction Stir Welding, June 14–16, Rockwell Science Center, Thousand Oaks, California.
Song,  M., and Kovacevic,  R., 2002, “A New Heat Transfer Model for Friction Stir Welding,” Transactions of North America Manufacturing and Research Institute, Society of Manufacturing Engineering , Vol. XXX, pp. 565–572.
Chao, Y. J., Qi, X., and Tang, W., 2000, “Heat Transfer Analysis of Friction Stir Joining of AA2195 Plates,” AeroMat 2000, 11th Advanced Aerospace Materials and Processes Conference, 26–29 June.
Metals Handbook, 1990, 10th edition, ASM International Handbook, p. 775.
Chao,  Y. J., and Qi,  X., 1999, “Three-dimensional Modeling of Gas Metal Arc Welding Process,” Transaction of North America Manufacturing and Research Institute, Society of Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. XXVII, pp. 117–122.
Chao, Y. J., Zhu, X., and Qi, X., 2000, “WELDSIM-A WELDing SIMulation Code for the Determination of Transient and Residual Temperature, Stress, and Distortion,” Advances in Computational Engineering and Science, Vol. II, Atluri, S. N., and Brust, F. W., eds., pp. 1207–1211.
Dike, J., Cadden, C., Corderman, R., Schultz, C., and McAninch, M., 1995, “Finite Element Modeling of Multipass GMA Welds in Steel Plates,” Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of Trends in Welding Research, Gatlinburg, TN, June 4–8.
Macdougal,  D., 2000, “Determination of the Plastic Work Converted to Heat Using Radiometry,” Exp. Mech., 40(3), pp. 289–297.
Rosakis,  P., Rosakis,  A. J., Ravicahandran,  G., and Hodowany,  J., 1999, “A Thermodynamic Internal Variable Model for the Partition of Plastic Work into Heat and Stored Energy in Metals,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 48, pp. 581–607.
Hodowany,  J., Ravicahandran,  G., Rosakis,  A. J., and Rosakis,  P., 2000, “Partition of Plastic Work into Heat and Stored Energy in Metals,” Exp. Mech., 40(2), pp. 113–123.

Figures

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Schematics of the friction stir welding
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Heat transfer in tool and workpiece in friction stir welding (One-half of the tool model is shown due to symmetry)
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Workpiece dimensions and the locations of the thermocouples
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Finite element mesh used in the tool modeling
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Steady state temperature distribution at the outside surface of the tool; Measurement (points); numerical results (lines)
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Thermal properties of AA2195 used in the finite element analysis
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Comparison of the temperature data in the workpiece from modeling and experiment, top layer; Measurement (points), numerical results (lines)
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Comparison of the temperature data in the workpiece from modeling and experiment, middle layer; Measurement (points), Numerical results (lines)
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Comparison of the temperature data in the workpiece from modeling and experiment, bottom layer; Measurement (points), numerical results (lines)
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Maximum temperatures experienced in the workpiece, AA2195
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Temperature contours from the top surface of the workpiece
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Temperature contours of the tool at steady state

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