The Mechanisms of Chip Formation in Machining Hardened Steels

[+] Author and Article Information
John Barry, Gerald Byrne

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Ireland

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 124(3), 528-535 (Jul 11, 2002) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1455643 History: Received August 01, 2000; Revised July 01, 2001; Online July 11, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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Principle (a) and arrangement (b) for obtaining quick-stop specimens
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(a) Chip morphology as a function of feed and flank land width for three different cutting speeds (b) definition of flank land width
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(a) Variation in chip thickness ratio as a function of cutting speed for the orthogonal cutting of steel 2 of 45 HRC (b) micrographs of selected chips
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(a) Lamellae on the free surface of a continuous chip formed during the orthogonal cutting of steel 2 of 45 HRC with cutting speed, vc=1.67 m/s and feed, f=100 μm (b) Folds formed on the free surface of a continuous chip produced under the same conditions as the chip in (a) except from a work material of 49 HRC
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Quick-stop specimens produced from steel 2 of 56 HRC, arrested during the initial stages of incipient segment formation (a), vc=1.4 m/s, (b), vc=2.5 m/s (cutting direction is from left to right)
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Quick-stop specimen produced from steel 2 of 56 HRC, in which an adiabatic shear band extends from the tool tip partway toward the free surface, vc=1.4 m/s
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Quick-stop specimen produced from steel 2 of 60 HRC, illustrating the gradual reduction in the shear angle near the tool tip, vc=0.8 m/s
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Quick-stop specimen produced from steel 2 of 60 HRC, vc=0.55 m/s
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(a) Optical micrograph of chip produced from steel 2 of 60 HRC with cutting speed, vc=3.33 m/s, feed, f=100 μm, orthogonal cutting (b) electron micrograph of the underside of a segment, viewing direction shown in (a)
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(a) Optical micrograph of chip produced from steel 2 of 45 HRC with cutting speed, vc=5.0 m/s and feed, f=100 μm, orthogonal cutting (b) electron micrograph of the underside of a segment, viewing direction shown in (a)
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Transitions in chip morphology with work material hardness and cutting conditions and the modes of material behavior within the primary shear zone
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(a) Section through lamellae on the free surface of a continuous chip produced during orthogonal cutting under the conditions listed (b) undeformed structure of work material (c) section through folds on the underside of a saw-tooth segment. Large arrows indicate the chip flow direction.
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Illustration of the modes of material behavior during lamella and fold formation in machining for the simple case of an element under shear (a) and (b) corresponds to lamella and fold formation, respectively
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Chip produced during the orthogonal cutting of steel 1 of 52 HRC with cutting speed, vc=3.3 m/s and feed, f=100 μm (a) optical cross-sectional micrograph (b) SEM micrograph of the free side of the chip, at same magnification as the image in (a) (c) higher magnification micrograph showing extension of tool marks along the underside of the saw-tooth segment
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(a) Continuous type chip, (b) saw-tooth type chip
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Geometry of workpiece used for orthogonal cutting tests



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