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TECHNICAL PAPERS

On-Line Thinning Measurement in the Deep Drawing Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Moshe Berger, Eyal Zussman

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israele-mail: meeyal@tx.technion.ac.il

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 124(2), 420-425 (Apr 29, 2002) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1455644 History: Received August 01, 2000; Revised July 01, 2001; Online April 29, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Siegert,  K., Haussermann,  M., Losch,  B., and Rieger,  R., 2000, “Recent Developments in Hydroforming Technology,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 98, pp. 251–258.
Siegert,  K., Dannenmann,  E., Wagner,  S., and Galaiko,  A., 1995, “Closed Loop Control System for Blank Holder Forces in Deep Drawing,” CIRP Ann., 44, pp. 251–254.
Ahmetoglu,  M. A., Kinzel,  G., and Altan,  T., 1997, “Forming of Aluminum Alloys-Application of Computer Simulations and Blank Holding Force Control,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 71, pp. 147–151.
Lo,  S-W, and Jeng,  G-M, 1999, “Monitoring the Displacement of a Blank in a Deep Drawing Process by Using a New Embedded-Type Sensor,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol, 15, pp. 815–821.
Kernosky,  S. K., Weinmann,  K. J., Michler,  J. R., and Kashani,  A. R., 1998, “Development of a Die Shoulder Force Transducer for Sheet Metal Forming Research,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 120, pp. 42–48.
Fenn,  R. C., and Hardt,  D. E., 1993, “Real Time Control of Sheet Stability During Forming,” ASME J. Eng. Ind. 115, pp. 299–308.
Tirosh,  J., and Sayir,  M., 1987, “High Speed Deep Drawing of Hardening and Rate Sensitive Solids with Small Interfacial Friction,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 35, pp. 479–494.
Dejmal, I., Tirosh, J., and Shizizly, A., 2002, “On the Optimal Die Curvature in Deep Drawing Processes,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences (in press).
Harpell,  E. T., Worswick,  M. J., Finn,  M., Jain,  M., and Martin,  F., 2000, “Numerical Prediction of the Limiting Draw Ratio for Aluminum Alloy Sheet,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 100, pp. 131–141.
Cao,  J., and Boyce,  M. C., 1997, “A Predictive Tool for Delaying Wrinkling and Tearing Failures in Sheet Metal Forming,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 119, pp. 354–365.
Graff, K. F., 1975, Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids, Clarendon, Oxford.
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Zussman,  E., 2000, “Influence of Temperature and Strain Rate on Plastic Instability during Deep Drawing,” Transactions of the North American Research Institution of SME, XXVIII, pp. 27–32.

Figures

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Schematic of sheet metal deep drawing
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The admissible wall thickness from which the admissible velocity field was driven
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Experimental results of the thickness distribution along a longitudinal axis of a drawn cup, drawing ratio=2. The blank is made of copper (t0=0.5 mm,C=430 kg/mm2,n=0.31).
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The measurement configuration
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Areas of the measurement configuration
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Wave displacement along the time axis. The sensor is located in x=0, wave displacement is observed at a distance of s=3 mm (100 time unit) from the sensor, oil layer length is 3⋅d, where d is the wall thickness. C-S: wave propagates from the cup to the sensor. S-C: wave propagates from the sensor to the cup.
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Wave characterization in the measurement setup
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Deep drawing experimental setup
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Envelope of the reflected signal for different sample thicknesses (copper) t0=0.38, 0.44, 0.5, 0.53 mm
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Calibration graph relating the maximum level of the reflected signal with the sample thickness (copper). The graph presents the combined data using two sensors set at 2 and 5 MHz frequencies.
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Thickness trajectory of a manufactured part. Three measurement methods are compared: an ultrasonic sensor (based on maximum amplitude), a micrometer, and a strain grid analysis.
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Thickness trajectory of the predicted model (Ct=0.1) and in-process measurements of two groups of results labeled as Cup#1, and Cup#2, Drawing ratio=2.

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