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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Determination of Friction Condition by Geometrical Measurement of Backward Extruded Aluminum Alloy Specimen

[+] Author and Article Information
Yong-Taek Im, Jae-Seung Cheon, Seong-Hoon Kang

Computer Aided Materials Processing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, ME3227, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305–701, KOREA

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 124(2), 409-415 (Apr 29, 2002) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1445151 History: Received November 01, 2000; Revised July 01, 2001; Online April 29, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Male,  A. T., and Cockcroft,  M. G., 1964, “A Method for the Determination of the Coefficient of Friction of Metals Under Conditions of Bulk Plastic Deformation,” J. Inst. Met., 93, pp. 38–46.
Chen, C. C., and Kobayashi, S., 1978, “Rigid-plastic Finite-element Analysis of Ring Compression,” H. Armen and R. F. Jones Jr., Eds., Applications of Numerical Methods of Forming Processes AMD, Vol. 28, pp. 163–174.
Nakamura, T., Zhang, Z. L., and Kimura, H., 1996, “Evaluation of Various Lubricants for Cold Forging Processes of Different Aluminum Alloys,” ICFG Do. No 2/96.
Ohinishi, K., Gotho, H., Wadabayashi, R., Idemizu, T., and Shimabara, H., 1986, “Evaluation of Lubricants for Warm Forging By Forward-Backward Extrusion,” The Proceedings of the 1986 Japanese Spring Conference for the Technology of Plasticity, pp. 123–126.
Sanchez, T. R., Weinmann, K., and Story, J. M., 1985, “A Friction Test for Extrusion based on Combined Forward and Backward Flow,” Proceedings of the 13th North American Manufacturing Research Conference, pp. 110–117.
Popilek, M. E., Weinmann, K. J., and Majlessi, S. A., 1992, “A Friction Test based on Combined Backward Can-Forward Bar Extrusion with Emphasis on Backward Flow,” Transactions of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 20, pp. 25–31.
Kuzman,  K., Pfeifer,  E., Bay,  N., and Hunding,  J., 1996, “Control of Material Flow in a Combined Backward Can-Forward Rod Extrusion,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 60, pp. 141–147.
Nakamura,  T., Bay,  N., and Zhang,  Z.-L., 1997, “FEM Simulation of Friction Testing Method Based on Combined Forward Rod-Backward Can Extrusion,” ASME J. Tribol., 119, pp. 501–506.
Buschhausen,  A., Weinmann,  K., Lee,  J. Y., and Altan,  T., 1992, “Evaluation of Lubrication and Friction in Cold Forging Using a Double Backward-Extrusion Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 33, pp. 95–108.
Dohda, K., and Wang, Z., 1996, “Investigation into Friction Behavior in Double Cup Extrusion,” ICFG Do. No. 8/96.
Nakamura,  T., Bay,  N., and Zhang,  Z.-L., 1998, “FEM Simulation of Friction Testing Method Based on Combined Forward Conical Can-Backward Straight Can Extrusion,” ASME J. Tribol., 120, pp. 716–723.
Im,  Y. T., Vardan,  O., Shen,  G., and Altan,  T., 1988, “Investigation of Metal Flow in Non-Isothermal Forging Using Ring and Spike Test,” CIRP Ann., 37, pp. 225–230.
Isogawa,  S., Kimura,  A., and Tozawa,  Y., 1992, “Proposal of an Evaluation Method on Lubrication,” CIRP Ann., 41, pp. 263–266.
Shen,  G., Vedhanayagam,  A., Kropp,  E., and Altan,  T., 1992, “A Method for Evaluating Friction Using a Backward Extrusion-type Forging,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 33, pp. 109–123.
Nishimura,  T., Sato,  T., and Tada,  Y., 1995, “Evaluation of Frictional Conditions for Various Tool Materials and Lubricants using the Injection-Upsetting Method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 53, pp. 726–735.
Hussain, P. B., Cheon, J. S., Kwak, D. Y., Kim, S. Y., and Im, Y. T., 2002, “Simulation of Clutch-Hub Forging Process Using CAMPform,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., to appear.
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ICFG, 1983, “General Recommendations for Design, Manufacture and Operational Aspects of Cold Extrusion Tools for Steel Components,” ICFG Do. No. 6/82, International Cold Forging Group, Portullis Press.

Figures

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Simulation results of clutch-hub forming: (a) formation of radial tip in the extruded end and definition of radial tip distance and (b) linear relationship between radial tip distance and shear friction factor 16
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Simulation conditions and deformation results for (a) conventional and (b) the proposed backward extrusion set-ups
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(a) Cross-sectional diagram and (b) photo of the proposed backward extrusion die-set
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Dimensions of the punch used in the current die-set (in mm)
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The deformation behavior in the proposed backward extrusion process: (a) initial workpiece set-up, (b) barrelling of workpiece, and (c) formation of the radial tip
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Photo of deformed shapes of workpiece at various punch strokes for the proposed backward extrusion process
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Measurement of radial tip distance, d
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Experimental results of radial tip distance for various lubricants
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Experimental results of maximum load for various lubricants
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Tip distance, d, from experiments using lubricants of (a) grease, (b) industrial oil grade VG22, and (c) WD40
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Load-stroke curves from experiments using various lubricants
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Plot of load vs. radial tip distance obtained from experiments using various lubricants
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Change of radial position of the tip from the side wall according to the punch travel for various shear friction factors
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Simulation results for mf=0.2 showing the states of deformation and effective strain distributions at punch strokes of (a) 6.5 mm and (b) 8.0 mm
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Change of radial tip distance using fixed mfd with varying mfp and fixed mfp with varying mfd

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