Research Papers

T-Shape Tube Hydroforming of Magnesium Alloys With Different Outlet Diameters

[+] Author and Article Information
Yeong-Maw Hwang1

Kuo-Hsing Wang, Nai-Shin Kang

Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering,  National Sun Yat-sen University, No. 70, Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan


Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 133(6), 061012 (Dec 09, 2011) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004851 History: Received March 25, 2011; Revised July 29, 2011; Published December 09, 2011; Online December 09, 2011

Good die surface shapes improve the flow pattern of the tube material, reduce stress concentration of the products, and decrease the forming load. The objective of this paper is to propose a design guideline for die surface shapes in T-shape protrusion hydroforming of magnesium alloys with different outlet diameters and propose an adaptive control algorithm to determine appropriate loading paths for the forming process. The finite element analysis is used to simulate the flow pattern of the tube during tube hydroforming process. The analytical flow line distribution of the tube is utilized to determine the speed ratio of the counter punch to the axial feeding at the protrusion stage of the hydroforming process. Experiments of T-shape warm hydroforming of magnesium alloy AZ61 tubes with a 1/2 outlet diameter ratio are conducted. Loading paths determined by the proposed adaptive simulation algorithm is adopted in the tube hydroforming (THF) experiments. From the comparisons of the product shape, thickness distribution, and flow line configuration between the analytical and experimental values, the validity of the proposed die design guidelines and control algorithms is verified.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Schematic figure of a T-shape hydroforming process with different outlet diameters

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Figure 2

Projections and geometric configuration for three types of die shapes with D0  = 60 mm, Dp  = 30 mm, and R1  = 15 mm. (a) Cross die, (b) Saddle die, and (c) Pentagon die

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Figure 3

Schematic of geometric relationship for saddle die

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Figure 4

Schematic of geometrical configuration for pentagon die

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Figure 5

Stress-strain curves from tensile tests

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Figure 6

Flow chart at bulge stage of T-shape hydroforming

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Figure 7

Flow line configurations

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Figure 8

Loading paths obtained by adaptive control algorithm for different types of die shapes

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Figure 9

Thickness distributions at upper positions of products using different types of die shapes

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Figure 10

Loading paths obtained by adaptive control algorithm for different branch diameters, (a) Dp /D0  = 60/60 and (b) Dp /D0  = 20/60

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Figure 11

Loading paths for T-shape protrusion experiments

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Figure 12

Appearance of hydroformed products

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Figure 13

Thickness distributions of products (a) at upper positions and (b) at central symmetric plane

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Figure 14

Flow line configurations of formed products




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