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TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Process Window for Reference Free Part Encapsulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Elmer Lee, Paula Valdivia, Winston Fan, Sanjay E. Sarma

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 124(2), 358-368 (Apr 29, 2002) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1414126 History: Received October 01, 2000; Revised February 01, 2001; Online April 29, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Sarma,  S., and Wright,  P. K., 1996, “Reference Free Part Encapsulation: A New Universal Fixturing Technology and its Implications on Design and Planning,” J. Manuf. Syst., 16(1), pp. 35–47.
Lee, E., Valdivia, Paula, Fan, Winston, and Sarma, Sanjay E., 2001, “Temperatures and Pressures for Encapsulation Fixturing,” Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Conference (NAMRAC XXIX), Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
Sprenkle, J. B., 1998, Personal Conversation at Pratt & Whitney, September.
Mills, A. F., 1995, Basic Heat and Mass Transfer, Irwin Publishing, Chicago.
Valdivia, P., 2000, “Investigation of the Remolding Step in Reference Free Part Encapsulation,” S. M. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Allsop, D. F., and Kennedy, D., 1983, Pressure Diecasting; Part 2, Pergamon Press, New York.
Lee, E. C., 1999, “Development of an Encapsulation Process for use in a Universal Automated Fixturing System,” S. M. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Greenwood,  J. A., and Rowe,  G. W., 1965, “Deformation of Surface Asperities during Bulk Plastic Flow,” J. Appl. Phys., 36, pp. 667–668.
Johnson, K. L., 1985, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., pp. 397.
Fan, W., 2000, “The Effect of Surface Roughness on the Precision of the Encapsulated Fixturing System,” S. M. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, p. 36.
Moore,  A. J. W., 1948, “Deformation of Metals in Static and in Sliding Contact” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, A195, pp. 231.
Williamson,  J. B. P., and Hunt,  R. T., 1972, “Asperity Persistence and the Real Area of Contact Between Rough Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, A327, pp. 147.
Childs,  T. H. C., 1973, “The Persistence of Asperities in Indentation Experiments,” Wear, 25, pp. 16.
Uppal,  A. H., and Probert,  S. D., 1972, “Deformation of Single and Multiple Asperities on Metal Surfaces,” Wear, 20, pp. 381.
Kim,  S-W, Durrant,  G., Lee,  J-H., and Cantor,  B., 1999, “The Effect of Die Geometry on the Microstructure of Indirect Squeeze Cast and Gravity Die Cast 7050 (Al-6.2Zn-2.3Cu-2.3Mg) Wrought Al Alloy,” J. Mater. Sci., 34, pp. 1873–1883.
Skolianos,  S. M., Kiourtsidis,  G., and Xantzifotious,  T., 1997, “Effect of Applied Pressure on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Squeeze-Cast Aluminum AA6061 Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, A231, pp. 17–24.
El Mahallawy,  N. A., Taha,  M. A., and Zamzam,  M. L., 1993, “On the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Squeeze-Cast Al-7 wt % Si Alloy,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 40, pp. 73–85.
Huang,  H., Suri,  V. K., Hill,  J. L., and Berry,  J. T., 1993, “Issues in Thermal Contact and Phase Change in Porosity Prediction,” Trans. ASME, 115, pp. 2–7.
Niyama,  E., Uchida,  T., Morikawa,  M., and Saito,  S., 1982, “A Method of Shrinkage Prediction and its Application to Steel Casting,” AFS Cast Metals Research Journal, 7, pp. 52–63.
Lee,  Y. W., Chang,  E., and Chieu,  C. F., 1990, “Modeling of Free Behavior of Solidifying Al-7Si-0.3-Mg Alloy Plate Casting,” Metallurgical Trans., 21B, pp. 715–722.

Figures

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Pratt & Whitney blades [Sprenkle 97]
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Reference Free Part Encapsulation: a new prototyping technology
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Re-welding and drift problems
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Breaking down the weld by super-heating the injected metal
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Diagram of the algorithm to solve the heat transfer problem using Runga Kutta and the proper governing equations
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Modeling heat transfer for re-welding
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How the maximum penetration depth changes with Θ for given cooling rates
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The temporary retreat of the solidification front as predicted by the simulation
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The re-welding mold and process
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Tensile test results for re-welds in different regimes
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Pictures of failed section showing increasing ductility
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The process window for re-welding with tensile test results superimposed
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Simulation for predicting re-welding
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Results of simulation for drift
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The process window for pre-heat and injection temperatures
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Surface roughness under fixturing load
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Mold for Bi/Sn replication test
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Experimental results from imprint tests
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Process window for pressure and surface roughness

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