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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Development of a Dilatometer for Measurement of the PVT Properties of a Polymer/CO2 Solution Using a Foaming Extruder and a Gear Pump

[+] Author and Article Information
Simon S. Park, Chul B. Park, Dmitry Ladin, Hani E. Naguib

Microcellular Plastics Manufacturing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G8

Costas Tzoganakis

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 124(1), 86-91 (Mar 01, 2001) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1418696 History: Received August 01, 1999; Revised March 01, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

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Lee,  M., Park,  C. B., and Tzoganakis,  C., 1999, “Measurements and Modeling of PS/Supercritical CO2 Solution Viscosities,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 39, p. 99.
Ladin,  D., Park,  C. B., Park,  S. S., Naguib,  H. E., and Cha,  S. W., 2001, “Study of Shear and Extensional Viscosities of Biodegradable PBS/CO2 Solutions,” J. Cell. Plast., 37, pp. 109–148.
Wissinger,  R. G., and Paulaitis,  M. E., 1987, “Swelling and Sorption in Polymer-CO2 Mixtures at Elevated Pressures,” J. Polym. Sci., Part C: Polym. Lett., 25, p. 2509.
Naguib,  H. E., Song,  S.-W., Park,  C. B., and Byon,  Y. J., 2000, “Effect of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen on Crystallization of Linear and Branched Propylene Resins Filled with Foaming Agents,” SPE, ANTEC Technical Papers, 46, pp. 1867–1873.
McKelvey,  J., 1984, “Performance of Gear Pumps in Polymer Processing,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 24, p. 398.
Park,  S. S., Park,  C. B., Ladin,  D., Naguib,  H. E., and Tzoganakis,  C., 1999, “On-Line Measurement of Polymer Melt Specific Volume Using a Gear Pump,” SPE, ANTEC Technical Papers, 45, pp. 2471–2478.
Foster,  G. N., Waldman,  N., and Grisley,  R. G., 1966, Polym. Eng. Sci., 6, p. 131.
Zoller,  P., 1979, “Pressure-Volume-Temperature Properties of Three Well-Characterized Low-Density Polyethylenes,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 23, pp. 1051–1056.
Zoller, P., and Walsh, D., 1995, Standard Pressure-Volume-Temperature Data for Polymers. Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA.
Rodgers,  P. A., 1993, “Pressure-Volume-Temperature Relationships for Polymeric Liquids: A Review of Equations of State and Their Characteristic Parameters for 56 Polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 48, pp. 1061–1080.
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Hirose,  T., Mizoguchi,  K., and Kamiya,  Y., 1986, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed., 24, p. 2107.
Park,  C. B., and Suh,  N. P., 1996, “Filamentary Extrusion of Microcellular Polymers Using a Rapid Decompressive Element,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 36, p. 34.
Yeung, A. K., 1998, “Development of Microcellular Foam Sheet Extrusion Systems,” M.A.Sc. Thesis, University of Toronto.
Frisch, K. C., and Sanders, J. H., 1972, Plastic Foams (In Two Parts), Part I, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
Park,  C. B., Behravesh,  A. H., and Venter,  R. D., 1998, “Low-Density, Microcellular Foam Processing in Extrusion Using CO2,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 38, p. 1812.
Behravesh,  A. H., Park,  C. B., and Venter,  R. D., 1998, “Challenge to the Production of Low-Density, Fine-Cell HDPE Foams Using CO2,” Cellular Polymers, 17, p. 309.
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IUPAC, 1973, International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State 3—Carbon Dioxide, Pregamon Press.

Figures

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Calibration for determining the positive displacement volume of a gear pump
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Volumetric flow rate of water and oil through the gear pump as a function of the gear pump speed (a) water (b) vegetable oil
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A schematic of the experimental setup for measuring the PVT properties of a polymer/gas solution
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Overall procedure to measure the PVT properties of a polymer/gas solution
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Comparison of the measured PVT data for pure PS melts with the reference data and Zoller and Walsh data 11 that were measured using a bellows type dilatometer. The indicated error ranges were due to the change of the gear pump speed.
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Effect of CO2 content on the specific volume of the PS/CO2 solution at various temperatures and pressures (a) 276 Bar (b) 207 Bar (c) 138 Bar
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Schematic of energy balance in the gear pump

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