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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Suppressing Cracking in Resistance Welding AA5754 by Mechanical Means

[+] Author and Article Information
Hongyan Zhang

Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606

Jacek Senkara

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Xin Wu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 124(1), 79-85 (May 01, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1418693 History: Received September 01, 2000; Revised May 01, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Warren,  A. S., 1991, “The Future for Increased Use of Aluminum in Cars,” Aluminum,67(11), pp. 1078–1080.
Osterman, F., 1993, Aluminum Materials Technology for Automobile Construction, Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd, London.
Irving,  B., 1995, “Building Tomorrow’s Automobiles,” Weld. J. (Miami), 74(8), pp. 29–34.
Welding Handbook Volume 3: Materials and Applications—Part 1, 1996, 8th Edition, AWS, Miami, FL, pp. 18–19.
Anik,  S., and Dorn,  L., 1991, “Metal Physical Processes During Welding—Weldability of Aluminum Alloys,” Welding Research Abroad,XXXVII, pp. 41–44.
Pellini,  W. S., 1952, “Strain Theory of Hot Tearing,” Foundry Trade J. 80, pp. 125–133.
Borland,  J. C., 1961, “Suggested Explanation of Hot Cracking in Mild and Low Alloy Steel Welds,” British Welding Journal,8, pp. 526–540.
Prokhorov,  N. N., 1968, “Theorie und Verfahren zum Bestimmen der Technologischen Festigkeit von Metallen beim Schweissen,” Schweisstechnik,19, pp. 8–11.
Watanabe, G., and Tachikawa, H., 1995, “Behaviour of Cracking Formed in Aluminum Alloy Sheets on Spot Welding,” 48th Annual Assembly of IIW, Stockholm, IIW Doc. No III-1041-95.
Michie, K. J., and Renaud, S. T., 1996, “Aluminum Resistance Spot Welding: How Weld Defects Affect Joint Integrity,” Proc. AWS Sheet Metal Welding Conference VII, Detroit, MI, Paper No. B5.
Thornton,  P. H., Krause,  A. R., and Davies,  R. G., 1996, “The Aluminum Spot Weld,” Weld. J. (Miami), 75(3), pp. 101-s to 108-s.
Senkara,  J., and Zhang,  H., 2000, “Cracking in Multi-Spot Welding Aluminum Alloy AA5754,” Weld. J. (Miami), 79(7), pp. 194-s to 201-s.
Resistance Welding Manual, 1946, the Resistance Welder Manufacturers’ Association.
Automotive Sheet Specification, 1994, Alcan Rolled Products Company, Feb.
Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 1990, Massalski, T. B., ed., 2nd Ed., ASM, Materials Park, OH.
Senkara, J., Zhang, H., and Hu, S. J., 2001, “Expulsion Prediction in Resistance Spot Welding,” Weld. J. (Miami), in press.
Aluminum: Properties and Physical Metallurgy, 1984, Hatch, J. E., ed., ASM, Metals Park, OH.
Zhang, H., Huang, Y., and Hu, S. J. 1996, “Nugget Growth in Spot Welding of Steel and Aluminum,” Proc. AWS Sheet Metal Welding Conference VII, Detroit, MI, Paper No. B3.
Gupta,  O. P., and De,  A., 1998, “An Improved Numerical Modeling for Resistance Spot Welding Process and Its Experimental Verification,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 120, pp. 246–251.
Prokhorov,  N. N., 1968, “Theorie und Verfahren zum Bestimmen der Technologischen Festigkeit von Metallen beim Schweissen,” Schweisstechnik,19, pp. 8–11.

Figures

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Three types of electrodes (A, B, and C) used in tests
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Schematic for using constraining washers
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Longitudinal cross-section of a multi-welded specimen (top) and a single welded specimen (bottom), with the representative loading and constraining conditions on half of the weldment. Locations “A” and “B” of multi-weld were used for stress analysis later.
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Statistics of crack orientation angles (for nearly 70 cracks) with respect to the fusion line
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Influence of specimen size and electrode type on cracking in single-spot welding
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Effect of welding sequence. Sequence A on the left: the 3rd welding was constrained on one-side only, and cracking occurred on the unconstrained (open) side; Sequence B on the right: the 3rd welding was constrained on both sides, and no cracking was observed.
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The effect of constraining washers on cracking tendency. Domed electrodes were used.
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Influence of insulating between workpieces on cracking. Welding with domed electrodes (top) and flat electrodes (bottom), respectively.
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Dependence of ductility and ultimate strength (UTS) on temperature. Dashed lines mark the solidus temperatures (887 K and 872 K) for AA5754 with Mg content ranging from 2.6–3.6 wt. percent. The shadowed area indicates possible thermal stress range in the HAZ.
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Possible stresses during heating, cooling, and combined final stress states at locations A and B taken from Fig. 3
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Temperature distribution by a finite element analysis at the moment when heating is stopped. The temperature is the highest in the liquid nugget that is beyond the melting point.

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