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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Process Analysis of Laser Beam Cladding

[+] Author and Article Information
A. F. H. Kaplan

ISLT - Department of Non-Conventional Processing, Forming and Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Arsenal, Objekt 207, A-1030 Vienna, Austria

G. Groboth

Group on Materials Technology, Austrian Research Center, Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf, Austria

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 123(4), 609-614 (Apr 01, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1344899 History: Received April 01, 1998; Revised April 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Steen, W. M., 1986, “Laser Cladding, Alloying and Melting,” The Industrial Laser Annual Handbook, D. Belforte and M. Levitt eds., pp. 158–174.
Gebhardt, A., Kreutz, E. W., and Backes, G., 1996, “Reconditioning of Machine and Engine Parts using High-Power Lasers,” Proceedings, ECLAT’96, Stuttgart (D), 1 , pp. 373–381.
Küpper, F., Gasser, A., Kreutz, E. W., and Wissenbach, K., 1990, “Cladding of Valves with CO2 Laser Radiation,” Proceedings, ECLAT’90, Erlangen (D), pp. 461–467.
Hatakenaka,  H., and Yamadera,  M., 1995, “Development and Application of Preventive Maintenance Technique for Pipes Using Laser Cladding Method,” Karyoku-Genshiryoku-Hatsuden, 46, No. 9, pp. 950–956.
Yellup,  J. M., 1995, “Laser Cladding using the Powder Blowing Technique,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 71, pp. 121–128.
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Marsden, C. F., Hoadley, A. F. A., and Wagnière, J.-D., 1992, “Characterization of the Laser Cladding Process,” Proceedings, ECLAT’92, Erlangen (D), pp. 543–551.
Picasso,  M., Marsden,  C. F., Wagnière,  J.-D., Frenk,  A., and Rappaz,  M., 1994, “A Simple but Realistic Model for Laser Cladding,” Metall. Trans. B, 25B, pp. 281–291.
Grünenwald, B., Shen, J., Dausinger, F., and Nowotny, St., 1992, “Laser Cladding with a Heterogeneous Powder Mixture of WC/Co and NiCrBSi,” Proceedings, ECLAT’92, Erlangen (D), pp. 411–418.
Pei,  Y. T., Ouyang,  J. H., and Lei,  T. C., 1996, “Microstructure of Bonding Zones in Laser-Clad Ni-Alloy-Based Composite Coatings Reinforced with Various Ceramic Powders,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 27, No. 2, pp. 391–400.
Weerasinghe, V. M., and Steen, W. M., 1987, “Laser Cladding with Blown Powder,” Met. Constr., No. 10, pp. 581–585.
Thompson,  M. E., and Szekely,  J., 1989, “The Transient Behavior of Weldpools with a Deformed Free Surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 32, pp. 1007–1019.
Li,  W. B., Engström,  H., Powell,  J., Tan,  Z., and Magnusson,  C., 1995, “Modelling of the Laser Cladding Process: Pre-Heating of the Blown Powder Material,” Lasers Eng., 4, pp. 329–341.
Pelletier,  J. M., Sahour,  M. C., Pilloz,  M., and Vannes,  A. B., 1993, “Influence of Processing Conditions on Geometrical Features of Laser Claddings Obtained by Powder Injection,” J. Mater. Sci., 28, pp. 5184–5188.
Powell, J., 1983, Laser Cladding, Ph.D thesis, Imperial College of Science and Technology, Dept. of Metallurgy, London (UK).
Kar,  A., and Mazumder,  J., 1987, “One-Dimensional Diffusion Model for Extended Solid Solution in Laser Cladding,” J. Appl. Phys., 61, pp. 2645–2655.
Kaplan, A. F. H., Weinberger, B., and Schuöcker, D., 1997, “Theoretical Analysis of Laser Cladding and Alloying,” SPIE Proceedings, LASER’97-Lasers in Material Processing, Munich (D), 3097 , pp. 499–506.
Kaplan,  A. F. H., Liedl,  G., Zimmermann,  J., and Spruzina,  W., 1998, “Laser Dispersing of TiC-Powder into Al-Substrates,” Lasers Eng., 7, Nos. 3–4, pp. 165–178.
Cline,  H. E., and Anthony,  T. R., 1977, “Heat Treating and Melting Material with a Scanning Laser or Electron Beam,” J. Appl. Phys., 48, pp. 3895–3900.
Kaplan,  A. F. H., 1997, “Surface Processing with Non-Gaussian Beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 70, pp. 264–266.
Carslaw, H. S., and Jaeger, J. C., 1959, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed., Oxford Univ. Press, New York.
Pustovalov,  V. K., and Bobuchenko,  D. S., 1993, “Thermal Processes in Gas-Powder Laser Cladding of Metal Materials,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 36, pp. 2449–2456.
Jouvard,  J.-M., Grevey,  D. F., and Lemoine,  F., 1997, “Continuous Wave Nd:YAG Laser Cladding Modeling: A Physical Study of Track Creation During Low Power Processing,” J. Laser Appl., 9, pp. 43–50.

Figures

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Basic mechanism of single-step laser beam cladding
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Model geometry: (a) side view, (b) cross section
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Heating of a Stellite 6-powder particle as a function of time; (1) heating by the laser beam, (2) heating by the melt pool, (3) equilibrium with the melt pool; the three curves correspond to particles with different pool entrance location xe
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Experimental (Weerasinghe and Steen, 1987) and calculated melt pool and clad layer dimensions in dependence of the processing speed for laser cladding of stainless steel on mild steel
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Clad layer height and bulk melting depth as a function of the powder feeding rate for varying translation speed and beam power; height limited by: (1) mass balance, (2) energy balance
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Substrate dilution, powder catchment and powder heating efficiency as a function of the powder feeding rate, corresponding to Fig. 5
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Cross sections of overlapping clad layer tracks: (a) little overlap (45 percent, Δyb=3 mm), (b) significant overlap (75 percent, Δyb=1.5 mm)

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