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Research Papers

Predicting the Effects of Cutting Parameters and Tool Geometry on Hard Turning Process Using Finite Element Method

[+] Author and Article Information
Xueping Zhang1

School of Mechanical Engineering,  Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, Chinazhangxp@sjtu.edu.cn

Shenfeng Wu, Heping Wang

School of Mechanical Engineering,  Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

C. Richard Liu

Department of Industrial Engineering,  Purdue University, West Lafayette IN49707

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 133(4), 041010 (Aug 11, 2011) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004611 History: Revised July 01, 2011; Received August 08, 2011; Published August 11, 2011; Online August 11, 2011

To explore the effects of cutting speed, feed rate and rake angle on chip morphology transition, a thermomechanical coupled orthogonal (2-D) finite element (FE) model is developed, and to determine the effects of tool nose radius and lead angle on hard turning process, an oblique (3-D) FE model is further proposed. Three one-factor simulations are conducted to determine the evolution of chip morphology with feed rate, rake angle, and cutting speed, respectively. The chip morphology evolution from continuous to saw-tooth chip is described by means of the variations of chip dimensional values, saw-tooth chip segmental degree and frequency. The results suggest that chip morphology transits from continuous to saw-tooth chip with increasing feed rate and cutting speed, and changing a tool’s positive rake angle to negative rake angle. There exists a critical cutting speed at which the chip morphology transfers from continuous to saw-tooth chip. The saw-tooth chip segmental frequency decreases as the feed rate and the tool negative rake angle value increases; however, it increases almost linearly with the cutting speed. The larger negative rake angle, the larger feed rate and higher cutting speed dominate saw-tooth chip morphology while positive rake angle, small feed rate and low cutting speed combine to determine continuous chip morphology. The 3-D FE model considers tool nose radii of 0.4 mm and 0.8 mm, respectively, with tool lead angels of 0 deg and 7 deg. The model successfully simulates 3-D saw-tooth chip morphology generated by periodic adiabatic shear and demonstrates the continuous and saw-tooth chip morphology, chip characteristic line and the material flow direction between chip-tool interfaces. The predicted chip morphology, cutting temperature, plastic strain distribution, and cutting forces agree well with the experimental data. The oblique cutting process simulation reveals that a bigger lead angle results in a severer chip deformation, the maximum temperature on the chip-tool interface reaches 1289 deg, close to the measured average temperature of 1100 deg; the predicted average tangential force is 150N, with 7% difference from the experimental data. When the cutting tool nose radius increases to 0.8 mm, the chip’s temperature and strain becomes relatively higher, and average tangential force increases 10N. This paper also discusses reasons for discrepancies between the experimental measured cutting force and that predicted by finite element simulation.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

2-D Finite element model for orthogonal cutting process

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Figure 11

Variations of saw-tooth degree and chip segmental frequency with feed rates

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Figure 12

Effect of rake angles on chip morphology evolution: (a) r = −5 deg, (b) r = −20 deg and (c) r = −30 deg

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Figure 13

Variation of dimensional values with rake angles

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Figure 16

Variation of saw-tooth chip dimensional values with cutting speeds

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Figure 17

Variation of saw-tooth chip segmental degree and frequency with cutting speeds

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Figure 21

Chip temperature distribution in oblique cutting process: (a) cutting tool nose radius is 0.4 mm and (b) cutting tool nose radius is 0.8 mm

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Figure 22

PEEQ distribution in chip: (a) cutting tool nose radius is 0.4 mm and (b) cutting tool nose radius is 0.8 mm

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Figure 23

Predicted cutting forces in oblique cutting process (a) cutting tool nose radius is 0.4 mm and (b) cutting tool nose radius is 0.8 mm

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Figure 24

Comparison of chip morphology on chip-tool interface (a) predicted chip and (b) experimental chip

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Figure 25

Saw-tooth chip morphology comparison on its free surface (a) Predicted chip and (b) experimental chip

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Figure 6

Predicted chip morphology

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Figure 5

Experimental chip morphology

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Figure 4

Chip dimensional values

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Figure 3

Determination on the uncut chip cross section by considering the PCBN tool nose

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Figure 2

3-D finite element model by considering PCBN tool nose in hard turning process

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Figure 20

Predicted cutting forces along three coordinate directions: (a) orthogonal cutting mod and (b) oblique cutting model

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Figure 19

PEEQ distribution in chip (a) orthogonal cutting model and (b) oblique cutting model

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Figure 18

Temperature distribution and chip morphology: (a) orthogonal cutting model and (b) oblique cutting model

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Figure 15

Effect of cutting speeds on chip morphology evolution: (a) v = 1 m/s, (b) v = 1.2 m/s, (c) v = 1.778 m/s, and (d) v = 3 m/s

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Figure 14

Variation of saw-tooth chip segmental degree and frequency along rake angles

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Figure 10

Variations of dimensional values with feed rates

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Figure 9

Effect of feed rates on chip morphology transition: (a) feed rate = 0.035 mm/rev; (b) feed rate = 0.085 mm/rev; (c) feed rate = 0.120 mm/rev; and (d) feed rate = 0.250 mm/rev

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Figure 8

Cutting forces comparison

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Figure 7

Saw-tooth chip dimensional values comparison

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