Research Papers

Numerical Analysis of Transport Phenomena in Resistance Spot Welding Process

[+] Author and Article Information
YongBing Li

Associate Professor e-mail: yongbinglee@sjtu.edu.cn

ZhongQin Lin


Qi Shen

Ph.D. Candidate  Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Autobody Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China

XinMin Lai

Professor  State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 133(3), 031019 (Jul 01, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004319 History: Received March 31, 2010; Revised May 05, 2011; Published July 01, 2011; Online July 01, 2011

Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a very complicated process involving electromagnetic, thermal, fluid flow, mechanical, and metallurgical variables. Since weld nugget area is closed and unobservable using experimental means, numerical methods are generally used to reveal the nugget formation mechanism. Traditional RSW models focus on the electrothermal behaviors in the nugget and do not have the ability to model mass transport caused by induced magnetic forces in the molten nugget. In this paper, a multiphysics model, which comprehensively considers the coupling of electric, magnetic, thermal, and flow fields during RSW, temperature-dependent physical properties, and phase transformation, is used to investigate the heat and mass transport laws in the weld nugget and to reveal the interaction of the heat and mass transports and their evolutions. Results showed that strong and complicated mass transport appears in the weld nugget and substantially changed the heat transport laws and, therefore, would be able to substantially affect the hardening, segregation, and residual stress of the weld. Compared with the traditional models which could not consider the mass transport, the multiphysics model proposed in this paper could simulate the RSW process with higher accuracy and more realities.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Flow pattern of molten metal in resistance spot weld nugget by Cunningham

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Figure 2

Effective viscosity model

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Figure 3

Multiphysics RSW calculation model. (a) Electric submodel; (b) fluid dynamics submodel; and (c) magnetic submodel.

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Figure 4

Solution procedure of RSW process simulation

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Figure 5

Experimental validation of the multiphysics numerical model. (a) 10.2 kA and 12 cycles and (b) 8.7 kA and 20 cycles. The curve in the right side of each figure is the computed nugget profile.

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Figure 6

Mass transport velocities in RSW. (a) 0.2465 s; (b) 0.2515 s; (c) 0.262 s; (d) 0.350 s; (e) 0.364 s; and (f) 0.432 s. (a)–(c) are zoomed in with different magnitude to get a close-up view of the flow field. The unit is m/s.

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Figure 7

Current density vector field at the first time step. The unit is A/m2 .

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Figure 8

Magnetic force field at the first time step. The unit is N/m3 .

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Figure 9

Heat transport pattern variation during RSW. (a) 0.2465 s; (b) 0.2515 s; (c) 0.262 s; (d) 0.3 s; (e) 0.35 s; (f) 0.364 s; (g) 0.37 s; (h) 0.3815 s; (i) 0.389 s; (j) 0.3985 s; (k) 0.4105 s; and (l) 0.432 s. The unit is °C. The rectangular frames in (e)–(h) have the same size.

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Figure 10

Heat and mass transport evolutions in RSW. (I) contact heating; (II) bulk heating; (III) phase change; (IV) fluctuation; (V) steady growth; (VI) fast attenuation; and (VII) termination.

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Figure 11

Temperature history of weld nugget center. (I) contact heating;(II) bulk heating; (III) phase change; (IV) fluctuation; (V) steady growth; (VI) fast attenuation; and (VII) termination.



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