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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Novel Control Approach for the Droplet Detachment in Rapid Prototyping by 3D Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
Bing Zheng

Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, P. R. China

Radovan Kovacevic

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 123(2), 348-355 (Mar 01, 2000) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1345730 History: Received March 01, 1999; Revised March 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Lancaster, J. F., ed., 1986, The Physics of Welding, 2nd ed., Pergamon Press, New York.
AWS, 1991, Welding Handbook, 2 , American Welding Society, Miami, Fla.
Kim,  Y. S., and Eagar,  T. W., 1993, “Analysis of Metal Transfer in Gas Metal Arc Welding,” Weld. J. (Miami), 6, pp. 269–278.
Jones,  L. A., Eagar,  T. W., and Lang,  J. H., 1998, “Images of a Steel Electrode in Ar-2percentO2 Shielding during Constant Gas Metal Arc Welding,” Weld. J. (Miami), 4, pp. 269–278.
Wang,  Q. L., and Li,  P. J., 1997, “Arc Light Sensing of Droplet Transfer and Its Analysis in Pulsed GMAW Process,” Weld. J. (Miami), 11, pp. 458s–469s.
Johnson, J. A., Carlson, N. M., and Smartt, H. B., 1989, “Detection of Metal Transfer Mode in GMAW,” Proc. 2nd International Conf. on Trends in Welding Res., 5 , pp. 377–381, Gatlinburg, Tenn.
Madigan, R. B., Quinn, T. P., and Siewert, T. A., 1989, “Sensing Droplet Detachment and Electrode Extension for Control of Gas Metal Arc Welding,” Proc. 3rd International Conf. on Trends in Welding Res., 11 , pp. 999–1002, Gatlinburg, Tenn.
ESAB Group, 1994, “Size, and Shape of the Liquid Droplet at the Molten Tip of an Arc Electrode,” J. Phys. B, 4, pp. 1433–1442.
Amson,  J. C., 1962, “An Analysis of the Gas-shielded Consumable Metal Arc Welding System,” Br. Weld. J., 41(4), pp. 232–249.
Greene,  J. W., 1960, “An Analysis of Transfer in Gas-shielded Welding Arcs,” Trans. AIEE Part 2, 7, pp. 194–203.
Waszink,  J. H., and Graat,  L. H. J., 1983, “Experiment Investigation of the Forces Acting on a Droplet of Weld Metal,” Weld. J. (Miami), 62(4), pp. 109s–116s.
Kovacevic, R., Er, L. G., and Zhang, Y. M., 1997, “Achieving Projected Spray Based on Excited Droplet Oscillation,” The Second World Congress on Intelligent Manufacturing Progresses and Systems, Budapest, Hungary, 6 , pp. 10–13.
Zhang,  Y. M., Er,  L. G., and Kovacevic,  R., 1998, “Active Metal Transfer Control by Monitoring Excited Droplet Oscillation,” Weld. J. (Miami), 77(9), pp. 388s–395s.
Dubon, Z., 1965, “A Device for Interrupted Electrode Wire Feed during Arc Welding,” Czechoslovakian Priority Certificate No. 116243. 10.
Paton,  B. E. , 1977, “Controlling the Arc Welding Process by Programming the Electrode Wire Feed Rate,” Autom. Weld., 30, No. 1, pp. 1–4.
Dmitrienko,  V. P., 1977, “Calculation of the Speed of Movement of the Electrode Tip during Welding with Mechanical Control of Metal Transfer,” Autom. Weld., 32, No. 2, pp. 1–4.
Jones, L. A., Eagar, T. W., and Lang, J. H., 1992, “Investigation of Droplet Detachment Control in Gas Metal Arc Welding,” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Trends in Welding Research, Gatlinburg, TN, 6 , pp. 1009–1013.
Yang, S. Y., 1998, Projected Droplet Transfer Control with Additional Mechanical Forces (AMF) in MIG/MAG Welding Process, Ph.D. dissertation, Harbin Institute of Technology.
Kovacevic, R., Beardsley, H., and Fan, H. G., 1998, “Modeling, Sensing and Control of Droplet Based Solid Freeform Fabrication Process,” The 75th Anniversary Energy Sources Technology Conference, ASME International Petroleum Division, Houston, TX, 2 .
Kovacevic, R., and Beardsley, H., 1998, “Process Control of 3D Welding as a Droplet-based Rapid Prototyping Technique,” Proceedings of the 9th Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, 8 , pp. 57–64.

Figures

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Block diagram of experimental system for GMAW of steel
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Schematic of welding current control wave form (a) pure square wave (b) square wave combined with sine wave (c) pure sine wave
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Wave forms for controlling current with the frequency of 50 Hz (a) combination of square wave form with sine wave form for current control (upper current control wave form: 1.5 V/div, lower synchronous monitoring wave form: 5.0 V/div, time base: 2.0 ms/div) (b) pure square wave form for current control (upper current control wave form: 1.5 V/div, lower synchronous monitoring wave form: 5.0 V/div, time base: 10.0 ms/div)
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Images of droplet detachment with frequency of 50 Hz (frame rate: 409 frames/second, i.e., 2.45 ms/frame) (a) combination of square wave form with sine wave form for current control (b) pure square wave form for current control
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Images of droplet detachment with frequency of 25 Hz (frame rate: 409 frames/second, i.e., 2.45 ms/frame) (a) combination of square wave form with sine wave form for current control (b) pure square wave form for current control
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Images of droplet detachment with frequency of 18 Hz (frame rate: 409 frames/second, i.e., 2.45 ms/frame)
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Photos of weld bead with detachment frequency of 18 Hz
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Geometrical sizes of the weld bead versus average welding current (corresponding to the experiments of No. 1-5 in Table 2) (a) weld penetration (b) weld bead width (c) weld bead height • pure square wave form ▪ combined wave form
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Droplet diameter and detachment frequency versus average welding current (for the experiments of No. 1-5 in Table 2) (a) average droplet diameter (b) droplet detachment frequency • pure square wave form ▪ combined wave form
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Cross sections of the weld beads for the experiments of No. 1-5 and No. 8 in Table 2 (a) combined wave form of 50 Hz (b) pure square wave form of 50 Hz (c) combined wave form of 25 Hz (d) pure square wave form of 25 Hz (e) combined wave form of 18 Hz (f ) pure sine wave form of 75 Hz
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Current control wave forms for forced oscillation of droplet with detachment frequency of 50 Hz (a) combination of square wave form with sine wave form for current control (upper current control wave form: 1.5 V/div, lower synchronous monitoring wave form: 5.0 V/div, time base: 5.0 ms/div) (b) pure square wave form for current control (upper current control wave form: 1.5 V/div, lower synchronous monitoring wave form: 5.0 V/div, time base: 10.0 ms/div)
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Images of forced droplet oscillation with detachment frequency of 50 Hz corresponding to Fig. 11 (frame rate: 606 frames/second, i.e., 1.65 ms/frame) (a) combination of square wave form with sine wave form for current control (b) pure square wave form for current control
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Pure sine wave form for current control of forced droplet oscillation (upper current control wave form: 1.5 V/div, lower synchronous monitoring wave form: 5.0 V/div, time base: 20.0 ms/div)
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Images of forced droplet oscillation with detachment frequency of 75.5 Hz corresponding to Fig. 13 (frame rate: 606 frames/second, i.e., 1.65 ms/frame)
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Wave forms for controlling current of the forced droplet resonance oscillation with detachment frequency of 25 Hz (A square wave form is combined with a sine wave form for current control. Upper current control wave form: 1.5 V/div, lower synchronous monitoring wave form: 5.0 V/div, time base: 2.0 ms/div).
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Images of droplet resonance oscillation corresponding to Fig. 15 (frame rate: 595 frames/second, i.e., 1.68 ms/frame)

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