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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Economical and Ecological Cryogenic Machining

[+] Author and Article Information
Shane Y. Hong

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 123(2), 331-338 (Sep 01, 1999) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1315297 History: Received October 01, 1998; Revised September 01, 1999
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

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Klocke,  F., and Eisenblatter,  G., 1997, “Dry Cutting” Ann. CIRP Manuf. Technol., 46, No. 2, pp. 519–526.
Bartle,  E. W., 1953, “Carbon Dioxide Permits Improved Machining Time,” Machinery (American), 59, p. 157.
Delaney,  R. J., 1957, “Sub-Zero Machining and Quenching,” Machinery (American), 63, p. 148.
Hollins,  W., 1961, “The Application and Effect of Controlled Atmosphere in the Machining of Metals,” Int. J. Mech. Tool Des. Res., 1, p. 59.
Arundel,  L., 1961, “Fast Cutting with Carbon Dioxide Coolant,” Prod. Eng. (N.Y.), 32, pp. 266–267.
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Filippi,  A., and Ippolito,  R., 1971, “Face Milling at −180°C,” Ann. CIRP, 19, No. 2, p. 399.
Uehara,  K., and Kumagai,  S., 1970, “Characteristics of Tool Wear in Cryogenic Machining,” Ann. CIRP, 19, p. 273.
Evans,  C., 1991, “Cryogenic Diamond Turning of Stainless Steel,” Ann. CIRP, 40, No. 1, pp. 571–575.
Mitelea,  I., 1990, “Austenitic Steels Cryogenic Cutting: A Method of Life Tools Improving,” Bull. Cerde ’Etud Metaux, 15, No. 20, p. 20.
Wang,  Z. Y., Rajurkar,  K. P., and Fan,  J., 1996, “Turning Ti-6A1-4V Alloy with Cryogenic Cooling,” Trans. NAMRC, Vol. XXIV, pp. 3–8.
Bhattacharayya, D., and Allen, M., 1991, “Cryogenic Machining of Kevlar Composites,” Processing and Manufacturing of Composite Materials, MD-Vol. 27, ASME, pp. 133–147.
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Dillon,  O. W., Angelis,  R. J. De, Lu,  W. Y., Gunasekera,  J. S., and Deno,  J. A., 1990, “The Effects of Temperature on Machining of Metals,” J. Mater. Shap. Technol., 8, p. 23.
Hong,  S., and Zhao,  Z., 1992, “Cooling Strategies for Cryogenic Machining from Materials Viewpoint,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 1, No. 5, pp. 669–678.
Zhao,  Z., and Hong,  S., 1992, “Cryogenic Properties of Some Cutting Tool Materials,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 1, No. 5, pp. 705–714.
Hong, S., Ding, Y., and Mathilakath, S., 1999, “Cryogenic Machining of Ti-6A1-4V, Part 2: Friction and Cutting Force,” submitted to Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
Hong, S., 1999, “Cryogenic Machining,” US Patent No. 5901623.
Hong, S., Jeong, J., Chen, G., and Saksena, A., 1999, “Design of a Low Flowrate LN2 Delivery System for Economical Cryogenic Machining,” submitted to Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
ISO3685, 1993, “Tool Life Testing with Single-point Turning Tools.”
Hong, S., and Ding, Y., 1999, “Cryogenic Machining of Ti-6A1-4V, Part 1: Cooling Approaches and Cutting Temperature,” submitted to Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
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Machinability Data Center, 1980, “Machining Data Handbook,” 3rd Ed., Vol. 1, Metcut Associates, Cincinnati, Ohio, pp. 1–39.
Hong, S., Marcus, I., and Ding, Y., 1999, “Cryogenic Machining of Ti-6A1-4V, Part 3: Cooling Approaches and Tool Lives,” submitted to Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
Hong,  S., Ding,  Y., and Ekkens,  R. G., 1999, “Improving Low Carbon Steel Chip Breakability by Cryogenic Chip Cooling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 39, No. 7, pp. 1065–1085.

Figures

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Principle of economical cryogenic cooling process
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Design of the nozzles: (a) when both primary nozzle and auxiliary nozzle are used to inject liquid nitrogen (b) only primary nozzle is used (c) photo of the tool assembly with LN2 flowing
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From the back of the CNC turning center, LN2 is fed from the cylinder to the turret via vacuum jacket line
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Vacuum jacketed delivery line
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Quick-change LN2 delivery line at the turret
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Tool life comparison in terms of total volume removed before tool failure
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Tool life comparison for cryogenic cooling and emulsion cooling in log-log scale
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Productivity comparison of cryogenic machining and conventional machining
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Machine/labor cost comparison
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Coolant cost comparison
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Production cost comparison of cryogenic and conventional machining
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Chip breaking improvement for machining AISI 1008 low carbon steel

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