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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Three-Dimensional Tube Geometry Control for Rotary Draw Tube Bending, Part 1: Bend Angle and Overall Tube Geometry Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Huazhou Lou, Kim A. Stelson

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 123(2), 258-265 (Mar 01, 2000) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1351813 History: Received August 01, 1999; Revised March 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Fagerson, R., 1993, “Experimental Study of Rotary-draw Tube Bending: Influence of Tooling Adjustments on Springback,” Master’s thesis, University of Minnesota.
Wang, W. C., and Stelson, K. A., 1991, “Computer Aided Manufacturing for Three-Dimensional Tube Bending with On-line Springback Compensation,” Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Institute of SME, Papers presented at: NAMRC XIX, May 22–24, 1991, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri, pp. 70–76.
von Karman, T. H., 1911, “Ueber die Formaenderung duennwandiger Rohre, insbesondere federnder Ausgleichrohre,” Zeitshrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure, Vol. 55, No. 45, pp. 1889–1895.
Clarke, K. W., 1967, “Metal Forming Machine,” U.S. Patent, No. 3,352,136, Nov. 14.
Eaton, H. L., and Shevell, W. I., 1974, “Method and Apparatus for Automatically Compensated Tube Bending,” U.S. Patent, No. 3,821,525, June 28.
LaFrasse, J., and Chastan, J., 1990, “Process and Apparatus for Monitoring Backspringing when Bending an Elongated Element Such as a Pipe,” U.S. Patent, No. 4,979,385, Dec. 25.
Whiteside, J. A., and Morgan. B. W., 1994, “Bend Correction Apparatus and Method,” U.S. Patent, No. 5,275,031, Jan. 4.
Gossard, D. C., and Allison, B. T., 1980, “Adaptive Brakeforming,” Eighth North American Manufacturing Research Conference Proceedings, pp. 252–256.
Hardt,  D. E., and Chen,  B., 1985, “Control of a Sequential Brakeforming Process,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 107, pp. 141–145.
Wang, W., 1988, “Computer Aided Manufacturing for Three-dimensional Tube Bending with On-line Springback Compensation,” Master’s thesis, University of Minnesota.
DeGarmo, P. E., 1969, Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, Collier-Macmillan, New York, p. 33.
Stouffer, D. C., and Dame, L. T., 1996, Inelastic Deformation of Metals, Wiley, New York, pp. 101–131.
Sabine,  J., 1993, “Material Properties in Bending Tube,” Tube International, 12, No. 52, January, pp. 34–36.

Figures

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Rotary-draw tube bending
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Springback angle Δθ vs. loaded bend angle θ
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Stress strain relation with reloading
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Moment vs. bend angle of a bend-rebend process
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Relaxation of a titanium tube (9.53 mm OD, 0.89 mm thickness, Ti-3Al-2.5V)
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Empirical relaxation model
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Radial growth after springback
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Tube shape deviation caused by radial growth
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Straight section offset caused by radial growth
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Simplified flow chart of the process control software
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On-line measured springback vs. bend angle
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Standard deviation of springback vs. bend angle
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Bent tube errors of single tube batch
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Histogram of the tube error of 20-120 method
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Histogram of the tube error of process control software

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