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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Analysis and Prediction of Edge Effects in Laser Bending

[+] Author and Article Information
Jiangcheng Bao, Y. Lawrence Yao

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 123(1), 53-61 (Jan 01, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1345729 History: Received May 01, 1999; Revised January 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Vollertsen, F., 1994, “Mechanisms and Models for Laser Forming,” Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering, Proceedings of the LANE’94, Vol. 1, Meisenbach Bamberg, pp. 345–360.
Vollertsen,  F., 1994, “An Analytical Model for Laser Bending,” Lasers Eng., 2, pp. 261–276.
Mucha, Z., Hoffman, J., Kalita, W., and Mucha, S., 1997, “Laser Forming of Thick Free Plate,” Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering 2, Proceedings of the LANE’97, Meisenbach Bamberg, pp. 383–393.
Vollertsen,  F., Komel,  I., and Kals,  R., 1995, “The Laser Bending of Steel Foils for Microparts by the Buckling Mechanism—A Model,” Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., 3, pp. 107–119.
Alberti, N., Fratini, L., and Micari, F., 1995, “Numerical Simulation of the Laser Bending Process by a Coupled Thermal Mechanical Analysis,” Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering, Proceedings of the LANE’94, Vol. 1, Meisenbach Bamberg, pp. 327–336.
Hsiao, Y.-C., Maher, W., et al., 1997, “Finite Element Modeling of Laser Forming,” Proc. ICALEO’97, Section A, pp. 31–40.
Holzer, S., Arnet, H., and Geiger, M., 1994, “Physical and Numerical Modeling of the Buckling Mechanism,” Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering, Proceedings of the LANE’94, Vol. 1, Meisenbach Bamberg, pp. 379–386.
Sprenger, A., Vollertsen, F., Steen, W. M., and Waltkins, K., 1994, “Influence of Strain Hardening on Laser Bending,” Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering, Proceedings of the LANE’94, Vol. 1, Meisenbach Bamberg, pp. 361–370.
Magee, J., Watkins, K. G., Steen, W. M., Calder, N., Sidhu, J., and Kirby, J., 1997, “Edge Effects in Laser Forming,” Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering 2, Proceedings of the LANE’97, Meisenbach Bamberg, pp. 399–408.
Bao, J., and Yao, Y. L., 1999, “Study of Edge Effects in Laser Bending,” 1999 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, MED 10, Nov. 14–19, 1999, pp. 941–948.
Li,  W., and Yao,  Y. L., 2000, “Numerical and Experimental Study of Strain Rate Effects in Laser Forming,” ASME J. Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 122, August, pp. 445–451.
Mielnik, E. M., 1991, Metalworking Science and Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Figures

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Schematic of straight-line laser bending (a) showing no edge effects (b) showing edge effects characterized by the curved bending edge and non-uniform bending angle varying along the scanning path α(x)
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(a) Temperature distribution in laser bending (deformation magnification 10X), and (b) deformed compared with undeformed plate (deformation magnification 5X) (Half plate, condition 3, V=26.7 mm/s)
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Bending angle variation along the scanning path, α(x) (Condition 3)
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Comparison of simulation and experiment under condition 3 (a) average bending angle, (b) curvature of the bending edge, (c) bending angle variation (difference between the max and min), and (d) relative bending angle variation (bending angle variation vs. average bending angle)
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(a) Typical peak temperature reached on the top surface along the scanning path (Condition 3, V=45 mm/s), and (b) temperature history of a typical point on the scanning path (Condition 3, V=13.3 and 45 mm/s)
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(a) Contractions in the scanning direction (X-axis), and (b) difference of mean strains between the top and bottom layer along the X-axis and curvature of the bending edge (Condition 3)
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Time history of plastic strain for a typical point (X=20 mm) (a) X-, Y-, and Z-axis plastic strain on the top surface along the scanning path, and (b) X-axis plastic strain on the top and bottom surfaces along the scanning path (Condition, 3, V=26.7 mm/s)
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Y-axis plastic strain, elastic strain and residual stress along the scanning path (Condition, 3, V=26.7 mm/s)
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Contour plot of Y-axis residual stress along the scanning path and within the symmetric plane (Condition 3, V=26.7 mm/s)
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(a) Measurement of bending angle α(x) (Condition 4), and (b) simulation and experimental results of bending angle α(x) (Condition 5)
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Time history of X-axis deformation (a) condition 3 (Buckling mechanism dominated), and (b) condition 5 (Temperature gradient mechanism dominated)
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Contour plot of Y-axis residual stress along the scanning path and within the symmetric plane (Condition 5, V=26.7 mm/s)

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