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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Tensile Strengths for Laser-Fabricated Parts and Similarity Parameters for Rapid Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Franz-Josef Kahlen, Aravinda Kar

Laser-Aided Manufacturing, Materials and Micro-Processing (LAMMMP) Laboratory, School of Optics and Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2700

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 123(1), 38-44 (Dec 01, 1999) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1286472 History: Received July 01, 1998; Revised December 01, 1999
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Atwood, C., Grifith, M., Harwell, L., Schlienger, E., Ensz, M., Smugeresky, J., Romero, T., and Reckaway, D., 1998, “Laser engineered net shaping (LENS™): A tool for direct fabrication of metal parts,” ICALEO98, Laser Institute of America, Beyer, E., Chen, X., and Miyamoto, I., eds., Orlando, FL, pp. E1–E7.
Chen, Z., Mai, T., and Lim, G., 1998, “Rapid tooling by laser cladding,” ICALEO98, Laser Institute of America, Beyer, E., Chen, X., and Miyamoto, I., eds., Orlando, FL, pp. E8–E14.
Backes, G., Kreutz, E., Hoffmann, E., and Poprawe, R., 1998, “Laser-shape reconditioning and manufacturing of tools and machine parts,” ICALEO98, Laser Institute of America, Beyer, E., Chen, X., and Miyamoto, I., eds., Orlando, FL, pp. E48–E56.
Miller,  D., Deckard,  C., and Williams,  J., 1997, “Variable beam size SLS workstation and enhanced SLS model,” Rapid Prototyp. J.,3, No. 1, pp. 4–11.
Breitinger, F., 1997, “Rapid Tooling—A New Approach to Integrated Product and Process Development,” SPIE Europto Series, 3102, Ahlers, R., and Reinhart, G., eds., pp. 43–54.
Krastel, K., and Drechsel, J., 1997, “Integration of laser processing in machine tools and their economy,” SPIE Europto Series, 3102, Ahlers, R., and Reinhart, G., eds., pp. 64–72.
Sankaranarayanan,  S., Guo,  W., and Kar,  A., 1998, “Characteristics of Laser-Fabricated Metal Structures,” Mater. Manuf. Processes, 13, No. 4, pp. 537–554.
Kahlen, F.-J., and Kar, A., 1997, “One-Step Microlithography,” SPIE Symposium on Micromachining and Microfabrication, 3225, Friedrich, C., and Umeda, A., eds., Austin, TX, pp. 119–125.
Kahlen, F.-J., and Kar, A., 1997, “One-Step Prototyping: Rapid Manufacturing,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exhibition, Design for Manufacturability Symposium, DE-94, Billatos, S., and Kim, B., eds., Dallas, TX, pp. 17–24.
Kahlen, F.-J., and Kar, A., 1997, “Plasma Spectroscopy in Laser Rapid Manufacturing of Copper, Titanium, Aluminum and Steels,” ICALEO97, Laser Institute of America, 83 , No. 1, Fabbro, R., Kar, A., and Matsunawa, A., eds., San Diego, CA, pp. C-93–C-102.
Kahlen, F.-J., Kar, A., Watkins, T., and Cavin, B., 1997, “Stress Analysis in Rapid Manufacturing,” ICALEO97, Laser Institute of America, 83 , No. 2, Fabbro, R., Kar, A., and Matsunawa, A., eds., San Diego, CA, pp. E-76–E-83.
Kahlen, F.-J., Sankaranarayanan, S., and Kar, A., 1997, “Surface Damage Repair Using Laser Cladding,” SAE Airframe/Engine Maintenance & Repair Conference & Exposition, White, N., ed., Vancouver, BC.
Kahlen, F.-J., and Kar, A., 1998, “Process Quality in Rapid Manufacturing,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exhibition, Design for Manufacturability Symposium, DE-99, Billatos, S., and Kim, B., eds., Anaheim, CA, pp. 49–58.
Kahlen, F.-J., 2000, “Plasma Diagnostics and Mechanical Properties in Laser Rapid Manufacturing,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Central Florida.
Kahlen, F.-J., von Klitzing, A., and Kar, A., 1999, “Hardness, chemical and microstructural studies for laser-fabricated metal parts of graded materials,” ICALEO99, Laser Institute of America, Denney, P., Miyamoto, I., and Watkins, K., eds., San Diego, CA.
Kahlen, F.-J., 1994, “The Development of a Laser Reflectometer Diagnostic Technique for Laser Keyhole Welding Studies of Stainless Steel SS 304,” M.S. thesis, University of Tennessee.
Herziger, G., Kreutz, E., and Wissenbach, K., 1986, “Fundamentals of Laser Processing of Materials,” SPIE, Laser Processing: Fundamentals, Applications, and System Engineering, 668, Duley, W., and Weeks, R., eds., pp. 2–10.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
A setup for a single-step metal part fabrication process
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Typical sample dimensions and direction of applied force relative to the longitudinal direction of layer deposition for tensile testing
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Stable and unstable operating ranges of the dimensionless numbers Re, B0, and ηm, other dimensionless numbers and their respective constraints are listed in Table 2. In this figure, “x” denotes the respective dimensionless number graphed.
Grahic Jump Location
Dimensionless numbers for stainless steel SS 304, aluminum, and copper for P=400 W, vs=5.1 mm/s, ṁdel=6.2 g/min. In this figure, “x” denotes the respective dimensionless number graphed.
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Measured yield strength and calculated residual stresses of laser-fabricated stainless steel SS 304 parts for different Bo numbers and ηm, constant Re=1.42, Ga=1399.8.
Grahic Jump Location
Measured ultimate strength of laser-fabricated stainless steel SS 304 parts for different Bo numbers and ηm, constant Re=1.42, Ga=1399.8

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