Free Machining Steel: III—Cutting Forces; Surface Finish and Chip Formation

[+] Author and Article Information
M. C. Shaw, E. Usui, P. A. Smith

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.

J. Eng. Ind 83(2), 181-192 (May 01, 1961) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3664457 History: Received June 09, 1960; Online December 09, 2011


Tests upon a variety of friction sliders reveal that, contrary to common belief, manganese sulfide is a poor solid lubricant relative to air. Lead, on the other hand, is found to be an excellent solid lubricant. An analog tool is introduced to enable surface finish studies to be made in the absence of feed marks. Cutting force results are presented for a wide variety of cutting conditions for both resulfurized and leaded steels. The built-up edge and thermal softening along the tool face lead to complex curves of cutting force versus speed. Additions of sulfur are found to promote the formation of a small built-up edge that is stable to much higher values of speed than that normally experienced with a nonresulfurized steel. Lead, on the other hand, tends to prevent built-up edge formation. Both lead and sulfur are found to produce thinner chips, promote chip curl, and to give rise to a shorter contact length between chip and tool. A discussion of the significance of the observed changes in contact length will be found in part 4 of this series.

Copyright © 1961 by ASME
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