A Statistical Analysis of Expulsion Limits in Resistance Spot Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
Hongyan Zhang, S. Jack Hu, Jacek Senkara

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Shaowei Cheng

Department of Statistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 122(3), 501-510 (Aug 01, 1999) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1285873 History: Received September 01, 1998; Revised August 01, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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A schematic “lobe” diagram. The electrode force is usually fixed.
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Relationship between original current data and transformed (orthogonal) current data. From left to right: linear effect, quadratic effect, and cubic effect.
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Settings in the experiment of steel welding. Circles are experimental data, and solid squares are added pseudo data.
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A plot of Cp values versus the number of effects for the best sub-models
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Contours of two models with similar small Cp values
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Appearance frequency of effects in the first 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50, 100, 150, and 200 “best” models
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A comparison of influencing factors in the models
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Surface plots of expulsion probability at fixed forces
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Contour plots of expulsion limits at various forces
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Dynamic resistance versus welding time for AA6111. Welding time and current were the same while electrode force was altered.
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Expulsion probability versus welding current and electrode force



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