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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Statistical Analysis of Expulsion Limits in Resistance Spot Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
Hongyan Zhang, S. Jack Hu, Jacek Senkara

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Shaowei Cheng

Department of Statistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 122(3), 501-510 (Aug 01, 1999) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1285873 History: Received September 01, 1998; Revised August 01, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Senkara, J., Zhang, H., and Hu, S. J., 2000, “Expulsion Prediction in Resistance Spot Welding,” Welding J., in press.
Davies, A. C., 1993, “The Science and Practice of Welding: Volume 2—The Practice of Welding,” 10th ed., p. 210.
Wu,  K. C., 1977, “The Mechanism of Expulsion in Weldbonding of Anodized Aluminum,” Weld. J. (Miami), 56, No. 8, pp. 238-s–244-s.
Dickinson,  D. W., Franklin,  J. E., and Stanya,  A., 1980, “Characterization of Spot Welding Behavior by Dynamic Electrical Parameter Monitoring,” Weld. J. (Miami), 59, No. 6, pp. 170-s–176-s.
Browne,  D. J., Chandler,  H. W., Evans,  J. T., and Wen,  J., 1995, “Computer Simulation of Resistance Spot Welding in Aluminum-Part I,” Weld. J. (Miami), 74, No. 10, pp. 339-s–344-s.
Browne,  D. J., Chandler,  H. W., Evans,  J. T., James,  P. S., Wen,  J., and Newton,  C. J., 1995, “Computer Simulation of Resistance Spot Welding in Aluminum-Part II,” Weld. J. (Miami), 74, No. 12, pp. 417-s–422-s.
Schumacher, B. W., and Soltis, M., 1988, “Getting Maximum Information from Welding Lobe Tests,” Proc. AWS Sheet Metal Welding Conference III, Detroit, Mich., Paper No. 16.
Gould, J. E., Kimchi, M., Leffel, C. A., and Dickinson, D. W., 1991, “Resistance Seam Weldability of Coated Steels. Part I: Weldability Envelopes,” Edison Welding Institute Research Report, MR9112, Nov. 1991.
Browne, D. J., Newton, C., and Boomer, D. R., 1995, “Optimization and Validation of a Model to Predict the Spot Weldability Parameter Lobes for Aluminum Automotive Body Sheet,” Proc. International Body Engineering Conference IBEC’95-Advanced Technologies & Processes, pp. 100–106.
Kaiser,  J. G., Dunn,  G. J., and Eagar,  T. W., 1982, “The Effect of Electrical Resistance on Nugget Formation During Spot Welding,” Weld. J. (Miami), 61, No. 6, pp. 167-s–174-s.
Karagoulis, M. J., 1992, “Control of Materials Processing Variables in Production Resistance Spot Welding,” Proc. AWS Sheet Metal Welding Conference V, Detroit, Mich., Paper No. B5.
Zhang, H., Huang, Y., and Hu, S. J, 1996, “Nugget Growth in Spot Welding of Steel and Aluminum” Proc. AWS Sheet Metal Welding Conference VII, Detroit, MI, Paper No. B3.
Gupta,  O. P., and De,  A., 1998, “An Improved Numerical Modeling for Resistance Spot Welding Process and Its Experimental Verification,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 120, pp. 246–251.
McCullagh, P., and Nelder, J. A., 1989, Generalized Linear Models, 2nd ed., Chapman & Hall, London, UK, pp. 21–135.
Sen, A., and Srivastava, M., 1990, Regression Analysis: Theory, Methods, and Applications, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 234–238.
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Auhl, J. R., and Patrick, E. P., 1994, “A Fresh Look at Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum Automotive Components,” SAE Paper No. 940160.
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Figures

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Expulsion probability versus welding current and electrode force
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Dynamic resistance versus welding time for AA6111. Welding time and current were the same while electrode force was altered.
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Contour plots of expulsion limits at various forces
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Surface plots of expulsion probability at fixed forces
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A comparison of influencing factors in the models
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Appearance frequency of effects in the first 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50, 100, 150, and 200 “best” models
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Contours of two models with similar small Cp values
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A plot of Cp values versus the number of effects for the best sub-models
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Settings in the experiment of steel welding. Circles are experimental data, and solid squares are added pseudo data.
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Relationship between original current data and transformed (orthogonal) current data. From left to right: linear effect, quadratic effect, and cubic effect.
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A schematic “lobe” diagram. The electrode force is usually fixed.

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