0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

Role of Unloading in Machining of Brittle Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Chandra, K. Wang, Y. Huang, G. Subhash, M. H. Miller, W. Qu

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 122(3), 452-462 (Sep 01, 1999) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1285903 History: Received June 01, 1997; Revised September 01, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Eckert, C., and Weatherall, J., 1990, Advanced ceramics: 90’s global business outlook, Ceramics Industry, April issue, pp. 53–57.
Jahanmir, S., Ives, L. K., Ruff, A. W., and Peterson, M. B., 1992, “Ceramic Machining: Assessment of Current Practice and research Needs in the United States,” NIST Special Publication #834.
Jahanmir, S., (ed.), 1993, Machining of Advanced Materials, NIST Special Publication 847.
Bifano,  T. G., Dow,  T. A., and Scattergood,  R. O., 1991, “Ductile Regime Grinding: A New Technology for Machining Brittle Materials,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 113, pp. 184–189.
Subramanian,  K., Redington,  P. D., and Ramnath,  S., 1994, “A System Approach for Grinding of Ceramics,” Bull. Am. Ceram. Soc., 73, pp. 61–66.
Subramanian,  K., Ramnath,  S., and Tricard,  M., 1997, “Mechanisms of Material Removal in the Precision Production Grinding of Ceramics,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 119, pp. 509–519.
Ashley, S., 1995, High-Speed Machining Goes Mainstream, Mech. Eng., ASME, May 1995, pp. 56–61.
O’Connor, L., 1995, “Machining With Super-Fast Spindles,” Mech. Eng., ASME, pp. 62–64.
Kovach, J. A., Laurich, Ziegler, K. R., Malkin, S., Sunderland, J. E., Guo, C., Zhu, B., and Ganesan, M., 1996, Development of advanced grinding technology for structural ceramics, Proc. NAMRC, pp. 51–56.
Malkin,  S., 1984, “Grinding of Metals: Theory and Applications,” J. Appl. Metalworking, 3, No. 2., p 95.
Malkin, S., 1989, Grinding Technology: Theory and Applications of Machining and Abrasives, Ellis Horwood Pub, Chichester, UK.
Gioia,  G., and Ortiz,  M., 1996, “The Two-dimensional Structure of Dynamic Boundary Layers and Shear Bands in Thermoviscoplastic Solids,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 44, No. 2, p. 251.
Xu,  H. H. K., Jahanmir,  S., and Wang,  Y., 1995, “Effect of Grain Size on Scratch Interactions and Material Removal in Alumina,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 78, No. 4, pp. 881–891.
Pfeiffer, W., and Hollstein, T., 1993, Damage Determination and Strength Prediction of Machined Ceramics by X-Ray Diffraction Techniques, Machining of Advanced Materials, NIST Pub. 847, pp. 235–245.
Marsh,  D. M., 1964, “Plastic Flow in Glass,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 279, pp. 420–435.
McClintock, F. A., and Argon, A. S., 1966, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA.
Schinker, M. G., and Doll, W., 1982, “Plasticity and fracture of Inorganic glasses in high speed grinding,” Fifth Int. Conf. Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids, Montpellier, France.
Spur,  G., Stark,  C., and Tio,  T. H., 1985, “Grinding of Non-Oxide Ceramics Using Diamond Grinding Wheels,” Machining of Ceramic Mat. Comp. ASME, 17, pp. 33–44.
Subramanian, K., and Keat, P. P., 1985, “Parametric study on grindability of structural and electronic ceramics—part 1,” Machining of Ceramic Materials and Components, K. Subramanian and R. Komanduri, eds., PED-Vol. 17, ASME, New York, pp. 25.
Inasaki,  I., 1986, “High efficiency grinding of advanced ceramics,” Ann. CIRP, 35, No. 1, p. 211.
Allor, R. L., Whalen, T. J., Baer, J. R., and Kumar, K. V., 1993, Machining of Silicon Nitride: Experimental Determination of Process/Property relationships, Machining of Advanced Materials, NIST Pub. 847, pp. 223–234.
Xu,  H. H. K., and Jahanmir,  S., 1994, “Simple Technique for Observing Subsurface Damage in Machining of Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 77, No. 5, pp. 1388–90.
Xu,  H. H. K., and Jahanmir,  S., 1995, “Microfracture and Material Removal in Scratching of Alumina,” J. Mater. Sci., 30, pp. 2235–2247.
Xu,  H. H. K., and Jahanmir,  S., 1995, “Scratching and Grinding of a Machinable Glass-Ceramic With Weak Interfaces and Rising T-Curve,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 78, No. 2, pp. 497–500.
Lawn,  B. R., and Evans,  A. G., 1980, “Elastic-Plastic Indentation Damage in Ceramics: The Median/Radial Crack System,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 63, No. 9/10, pp. 574–581.
Evans, A. G., and Marshall, D. B., 1981, “Wear mechanisms in ceramics,” Fundamentals of Friction and Wear of Materials, D. A. Rigney, ed., ASME, New York, USA, p. 439.
Chiang,  S. S., Marshall,  D. B., and Evans,  A. G., 1982, “The Response of Solids to Elastic/Plastic Indentation. I. Stresses and Residual Stresses,” J. Appl. Phys., 53, pp. 298–311.
Chiang,  S. S., Marshall,  D. B., and Evans,  A. G., 1982, “The Response of Solids to Elastic/Plastic Indentation. II. Fracture Iitiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, pp. 312–317.
Marshall,  D. B., 1984, “Geometrical Effects in Elastic-Plastic Indentation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 67, No. 1, pp. 57–60.
Ritter,  J. E., Strzepa,  P., and Jakus,  K., 1984, “Erosion and Strength Degradation in Soda-Lime Glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses, 25, No. 6, pp. 159–166.
Ritter,  J. E., 1985, “Assuring Mechanical Reliability of Ceramic Components,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn., 93, No. 7, pp. 341–348.
Malkin,  S., and Ritter,  J. E., 1989, “Grinding Mechanisms and Strength Degradation for Ceramics,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 111, pp. 167–174.
Hu,  K. X., and Chandra,  A., 1993, “A Fracture Mechanics Approach to Modeling Strength Degradation in Ceramic Grinding Processes,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 115, pp. 73–84.
Cook,  R. F., and Pharr,  G. M., 1990, “Direct Observation and Analysis of Indentation Cracking in Glasses and Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 73, No. 4, pp. 787–817.
Marshall,  D. B., and Iawn,  B. R., 1979, “Residual Effects in Sharp Contact Cracking,” J. Mater. Sci., 14, pp. 2001–2012.
Lankford,  J., 1981, “Mechanisms responsible for Strain Rate Dependent Compressive Strength in Ceramic Materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 64, pp. c33–c34.
Grady,  D. E., and Lipkin,  J., 1980, “Criteria for Impulsive Rock Fracture,” Geophys. Res. Lett., 7, pp. 255–258.
Lankford,  J., and Blanchard,  C. R., 1989, “Response of Whisker-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites to Dynamic Compressive Loading,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 107, pp. 261–268.
Lankford,  J., and Blanchard,  C. R., 1991, “Fragmentation of Brittle Materials at High Rates of Loading,” J. Mater. Sci., 26, pp. 3067–3072.
Espinosa,  H. D., Raiser,  G., Clifton,  R. J., and Ortiz,  M., 1992, “Experimental Observations and Numerical Modeling of Inelasticity in Dynamically Loaded Ceramics,” J. Hard Mater., 3, No. 3–4, pp. 285–313.
Suresh,  S., Nakamura,  T., Yeshurun,  Y., Yang,  K.-H., and Duffy,  J., 1990, “Tensile Fracture Toughness of Ceramic Materials: Effects of Dynamic Loading and Elevated Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 73, No. 8, pp. 2457–2466.
Yang,  K. H., and Kobayashi,  A. S., 1990, “Dynamic Fracture Responses of Alumina and Two Ceramic Composites,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 73, No. 8, pp. 2309–2315.
Grady, D. E., and Kipp, M. E., 1985, “Growth of Inhomogeneous Thermoplastic Shear,” Int. Conf. Mechanical and Physical Behavior of Materials Under Dynamic Loading, Vol. 46, No. 8, pp. 291–298.
Nemat-Nasser,  S., Isaacs,  J. B., and Starrett,  J. E., 1991, “Hopkinson Techniques for Dynamic Recovery Experiments,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 435, pp. 371–391.
Subhash,  G., and Nemat-Nasser,  S., 1993, “Dynamic Stress-Induced Transformation and Texture Formation in Uniaxial Compression of Zirconia Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 76[1], 153–65.
Ravichandran,  G., and Subhash,  G., 1995, “A Micromechanical Model for High Strain Rate Behavior of Ceramics,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 32, No. 17/18, pp. 2627–2646.
Yoffe,  E. H., 1982, “Elastic Stress Fields Caused by Indenting Brittle Materials,” Philos. Mag. A, 46, pp. 617–628.
Chaudhari,  M. M., and Phillips,  M. A., 1990, “Quasi-static Indentation Cracking of Thermally Tempered Soda-lime Glass with Spherical and Vickers Indenters,” Philos. Mag. A, 62, No. 1, pp. 1–27.
Subhash,  G., and Nemat-Nasser,  S., 1993, J. Mater. Sci., 25, 5949–5952.
Subhash, G., Koeppel, B. J., and Chandra, A., 1999, “Dynamic Indentation Hardness and Rate Sensitivity in Metals,” ASME J. Mater. Technol. (accepted).
Moriwaki,  T., Shamoto,  E., and Inoue,  K., 1992, “Ultraprecision Ductile Cutting of Glass by Applying Ultrasonic Vibration,” Ann. CIRP, 41, No. 1, pp. 141–144.
Markov, A. I., 1966, Ultrasonic Machining of Intractable Materials, Illife Books, London.
Hashimoto, H., and K. Imai, 1998, “Epistemology and Abduction in Shear (Ductile) Mode Grinding of Brittle Materials,” Proc. of the ASPE Spring Topical Meeting, pp. 36–39.
Ishikawa,  K., Suwabe,  H., Nishide,  T., and Uneda,  M., 1998, “A Study on Combined Vibration Drilling by Ultrasonic and Low-Frequency Vibrations for Hard and Brittle Materials,” Precis. Eng., 22, No. 4, pp. 196–205.
Colwell, L. V., 1956, “The Effects of High-Frequency Vibrations in Grinding,” Trans. ASME, May issue, pp. 837–846.
Astashev,  V. K., 1992, “Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration of a Single Point Tool on the Process of Cutting,” J. Mach. Manuf. Reliability, 2, No. 3, pp. 65–70.
Prabhakar,  D., Pei,  Z. J., and Ferreira,  P. M., 1993, “A Theoretical Model for Predicting Material Removal Rates in Rotary Ultrasonic Machining of Ceramics,” Trans. NAMRI/SME,21, pp. 176–172.
Xu,  H. H. K., and Jahanmir,  S., 1995, “Effect of Grain Size on Scratch Damage and Hardness of Alumina,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 14, pp. 736–739.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of indentation crack systems
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of experimental set-up for high strain rate indentation
Grahic Jump Location
Comparisons of model predictions to experimental observations under fully unloaded configuration: (a) depths of normal damage zone, (b) surface traces of normal damage zone, and (c) size of lateral damage zone
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of model predictions to experimental observations (Fig. 6 in 35): (a) P=52N under loading, (b) P=90N peak load, (c) P=35N under unloading, (d) P=0 fully unloaded configuration, and (e) final normal damage contour
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of interactions of lateral and evolving normal damage zones upon reloading after unloading
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of intermittent unloading from Pint on depth of penetration of normal damage upon subsequent loading to Pmax
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of ΔP=Pshield−Pint with Pint
Grahic Jump Location
Experimental set-up for single grit scratch tests
Grahic Jump Location
Front view of scratch with modulation (maximum depth of cut=20 μm, cutting speed=8.6 cm/sec, modulation frequency 1 kHz, P-V modulation amplitude=20 μm; marker size 100 μm)
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of modulation frequency on depth of median crack penetration
Grahic Jump Location
The plastic deformation zone under indentation loading
Grahic Jump Location
The spherical polar coordinate system for static model
Grahic Jump Location
Coordinate system for the Cerruti field

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In