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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Hard Turning: Chip Formation Mechanisms and Metallurgical Aspects

[+] Author and Article Information
Gérard Poulachon

ENSAM, LaBoMaP, 71250 Cluny, France

Tel: 00 33 385595330 Fax: 00 33 385595370

poulach@cluny.ensam.fr

Alphonse L. Moisan

ENSAM, MécaSurf, 13100 Aix en Provence, France

Tel: 00 33 442938181 Fax: 00 33 442938100

alphonse.moisan@aix.ensam.fr

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 122(3), 406-412 (Oct 01, 1999) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1285891 History: Received December 01, 1998; Revised October 01, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Komanduri,  R., and Brown,  R. H., 1981, “The Mechanics of Chip Segmentation in Machining,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 103, No. 1, pp. 33–51.
Shaw,  M. C., and Vyas,  A., 1998, “The Mechanisms of Chip Formation With Hard Turning Steel,” Ann. CIRP, 47/1, pp. 77–82.
Shaw, M. C., 1967, “Assessment of Machinability,” Machinability, 11 , ISI Special Report 94, The Iron and Steel Institute, London.
Lemaire,  J. C., and Backoffen,  W. A., 1972, “Adiabatic Instability in the Orthogonal Cutting of Steel,” Metall. Trans., 3, pp. 477–481.
Berktold, A., 1992, Drehraümen Gehärteter Stahlwerkstoffe, Doctoral Thesis, RWTH Aachen, published in VDI-Verlag.
König,  W., Berktold,  A., and Koch,  F., 1993, “Turning Versus Grinding—A Comparison of Surface Integrity Aspects and Attainable Accuracies,” Ann. CIRP, 42/1, pp. 39–43.
Nakayama, K., 1974, “The Formation of Saw-Toothed Chip in Metal Cutting,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Production Engineering, Tokyo, Part 1, pp. 572–577.
El-Wardany, T. I., and Elbestawi, M. A., 1998, “Phenomenological Analysis of Material Side Flow in Hard Turning: Causes, Modeling and Elimination,” Proc. of the CIRP Int. Workshop on Modeling of Machining Operations, Atlanta, Georgia, USA pp. 141–150.
Davies,  A., Burns,  T. J., and Evans,  C. J., 1997, “On the Dynamics of Chip Formation in Machining Hard Metals,” Ann. CIRP, 46/1, pp. 25–30.
Komanduri,  R. , 1982, “On the Catastrophic Shear Instability in High Speed Machining of an A15J4340 Steel,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 104, pp. 121–131.
Matsumoto,  Y., Barasm,  M. M., and Liu,  C., 1987, “Cutting Mechanism During Machining of Hardened Steel,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 3, pp. 299–305.
Walker, T. J., and Shaw, M. C., 1969, “On Deformation at Large Strains,” Proc. of the 10th Int. M.T.D.R. Conference, London, p. 241.
Arnold,  R. N., 1946, “The Mechanism of Tool Vibration in Cutting Steel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., London, 154, p. 261.
Ueda,  N., and Matsuo,  T., 1982, “An Analysis of Saw-Toothed Chip Formation,” Ann. CIRP, 31, No. 1, pp. 81–84.

Figures

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The different stages of the saw-tooth chip formation
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Ejection of the undeformed part
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High plastic deformation
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Saw-tooth morphology (1) highly deformed part, (2) weakly deformed part
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Chip morphology evolution versus the feed rate V=100 m/min,d=1 mm
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Chip morphology evolution versus the cutting speed f=0.1 mm/rev,d=1 mm
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Annealed steel 180 HV0.1
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Tempered steel 225 HV0.1
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Tempered steel 402 HV0.1
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Tempered steel 620 HV0.1
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Quenched steel 750 HV0.1
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Hardness evolution in a chip segment
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Chip morphology according to the hardness and the cutting speed

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