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TECHNICAL PAPERS

High Speed Grinding of Silicon Nitride With Electroplated Diamond Wheels, Part 1: Wear and Wheel Life

[+] Author and Article Information
T. W. Hwang, C. J. Evans, E. P. Whitenton

Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899

S. Malkin

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 122(1), 32-41 (Jun 01, 1999) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.538908 History: Received December 01, 1998; Revised June 01, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Klocke,  F., Brinksmeier,  E., Evans,  C. J., Howes,  T., Inasaki,  I., Tönshoff,  H. K., Webster,  J. A., and Stuff,  D., 1997, “High Speed Grinding—Fundamentals and State of the Art in Europe, Japan and the USA,” Ann. CIRP, 46, No. 2, pp. 715–724.
Inoue,  K., Sakai,  Y., Ono,  K., and Watanabe,  Y., 1994, “Super High Speed Grinding for Ceramics with Vitrified Diamond Wheel,” Int. J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng., 28, pp. 344–345.
Kovach, J. A., Blau, P., Malkin, S., Srinivasan, S., Bandyopadhyay, B., and Ziegler, K. R., 1993, “A Feasibility Investigation of High Speed, Low Damage Grinding for Advanced Ceramics,” SME 5th International Grinding Conference, SME, Vol. I.
Kovach, J. A., Laurich, M. A., Malkin, S., and Zhu, B., 1994, “High-Speed, Low-Damage Grinding of Silicon Nitride,” Proceedings of the Annual Automotive Technology Development Contractors’ Coordination Meeting, October, Dearborn, Michigan, pp. 411–421.
Maksoud, T. M. A., and Mokbel, A. A., 1995, “Very High Infeed Effects on the Grinding of Advanced Ceramic Materials,” Al-Azhar Engineering 4th International Conference, December 16–19, Cairo, Egypt.
Malkin, S., 1989, Grinding Technology: Theory and Application of Machining with Abrasives, John Wiley & Sons, New York (reprinted by SME, Dearborn, MI.)
Ukai, N., 1993, “Super High Speed Grinding with Vitrified CBN Wheels,” SME 5th International Grinding Conference, SME, Vol. I.
König,  W., and Ferlemann,  F., 1990, “CBN Schleifsceiben für 500 m/s Schnittgesschwindigkeitt,” Ind. Diam. Rundschau, 24, pp. 242–251.
Tönshoff,  H. K., Karpuschewski,  B., Mandrysch,  T., and Inasaki,  I., 1998, “Grinding Process Achievements and Their Consequences on Machine Tools Challenges and Opportunities,” Ann. CIRP, 47, No. 2, pp. 651–668.
Hwang, T. W., Evans, C. J., and Malkin, S., submitted, “High Speed Grinding of Silicon Nitride with Electroplated Diamond Wheels, Part 2: Wheel Topography and Grinding Mechanisms,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 122 , pp. 42–50.
Hwang, T. W., 1997, “Grinding Energy and Mechanisms for Ceramics,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts.
Malkin,  S., and Cook,  N. H., 1971, “The Wear of Grinding Wheels Part II—Fracture Wear,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 93, pp. 1129–1133.
Liao,  T. W., Li,  K., McSpadden,  S. B., and O’Rourke,  L. J., 1997, “Wear of Diamond Wheels in Creep-Feed Grinding of Ceramic Materials. I. Mechanisms,” Wear, 211, pp. 104–112.
Foster, M., and Ramanan, N., 1997, “Wear Mechanism of an Electroplated CBN Grinding Wheel During Grinding of a Nickel Base Alloy With Aqueous-Based Coolant,” 2nd International Machine and Grinding Conference, SME, pp. 25–28.
Malkin,  S., and Cook,  N. H., 1971, “The Wear of Grinding Wheels Part I—Attritious Wear,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 93, pp. 1120–1128.
Archard,  J. F., 1953, “Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys., 24, pp. 981–988.
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Figures

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Schematic illustration of experimental method
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Normal grinding force per unit width versus grinding time: (a) wheel I (a=50.8 μm, vw=63.5 mm/s, vs=85 m/s); (b) wheels II and III (a=50.8 μm, vw=63.5 mm/s, vs=149 m/s); (c) wheel IV (a=25.4 μm, vw=127 mm/s, vs=149 m/s); (d) normal force per unit width due to abrasive–workpiece interactions versus grinding time taken from (a)–(c)
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Machine (spindle) power versus wheel velocity
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Grinding power per unit width versus grinding time: (a) wheel I (a=50.8 μm, vw=63.5 mm/s, vs=85 m/s); (b) wheels II and III (a=50.8 μm, vw=63.5 mm/s, vs=149 m/s); (c) wheel IV (a=25.4 μm, vw=127 mm/s, vs=149 m/s); (d) grinding power per unit width due to abrasive–workpiece interactions versus grinding time from (a)–(c)
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Ground surfaces at various grinding times (wheel I, a=50.8 μm, vw=63.5 mm/s, vs=85 m/s): (a) t=264 s; (b) t=1048 s; (c) t=1520 s
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Ground surfaces at various grinding times (wheel II, a=50.8 μm, vw=63.5 mm/s, vs=149 m/s): (a) t=514 s; (b) t=976 s; (c) t=1269 s
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Surface profiles of ground specimens at various grinding times (wheel I, a=50.8 μm,vw=63.5 mm/s,vs=85 m/s)
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Surface roughness of ground specimen versus grinding time
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Plot of normal force per unit width at a grinding time of 1300 s
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SEM micrographs of surface (wheel II, a=50.8 μm,vw=63.5 mm/s,vs=149 m/s,t=1269 s): (a) 200×; (b) 500×
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Isolated SEM micrographs of wear flats (wheel II, a=50.8 μm,vw=63.5 mm/s,vs=149 m/s,t=1269 s): (a) 1500×; (b) 1500×
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Optical micrographs of isolated wear flats (wheel II, a=50.8 μm,vw=63.5 mm/s,vs=149 m/s,t=1269 s): (a) 400×; (b) 1000×, (c) 1000×
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Accumulated radial wheel wear versus accumulated grinding time
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Accumulated grinding ratio (G ratio) versus accumulated grinding time
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Wear depth w versus sliding length per unit volumetric removal rate per unit width Ls
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Surface roughness versus (a) normal force per unit width and (b) power per unit width

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