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Research Papers

Toward Standards-Based Generation of Reusable Life Cycle Inventory Data Models for Manufacturing Processes

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael P. Brundage

National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Systems Integration Division,
Gaithersburg, MD 20814
e-mail: michael.brundage@nist.gov

David Lechevalier

Engisis LLC,
Bethesda, MD 20817
e-mail: david.lechevalier@engisis.com

K. C. Morris

National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Systems Integration Division,
Gaithersburg, MD 20814
e-mail: kcm@nist.gov

1Corresponding author.

2The ISO 14000 series of standards focus on environment management and include the standards for life cycle assessments.

3ASTM Internationals E60.13 subcommittee focuses on sustainable manufacturing standards.

Manuscript received May 7, 2018; final manuscript received October 24, 2018; published online December 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Karl R. Haapala. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(2), 021017 (Dec 24, 2018) (20 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1315; doi: 10.1115/1.4041947 History: Received May 07, 2018; Revised October 24, 2018

The production stage of a product's life cycle can significantly contribute to its overall environmental impact. Estimates of environmental impact for a product are typically produced using life cycle assessment (LCA) methods. These methods rely on life cycle inventory (LCI) data containing impact estimates of manufacturing processes and other operations that contribute to a product's creation. The accuracy of LCI data is critical for quality assessments; however, these data are often insufficient in the types and varieties of manufacturing processes covered and are often only a coarse estimate of actual impacts. At the same time, much manufacturing research focuses on how to model, measure, assess, and reduce the environmental impacts of manufacturing processes. Recent standards emerging from ASTM International define a structured format for presenting these studies in a reusable way. In this paper, we investigate the potential for using the ASTM E3012-16 format to generate LCI datasets suitable to perform LCA by mapping from the ASTM standard into the widely adopted ecoSpold2 format. A process is presented for generating LCI datasets from ASTM models, and overlaps and gaps between the two standards are identified.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Example of a system for LCA. Figure taken from Ref. [12]. ISO. This material is reproduced from ISO 14040:2006 with permission of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) on behalf of the International Organization for Standardization. The complete standard can be purchased from ANSI at https://webstore.ansi.org. All rights reserved.

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Fig. 2

IDEF0 diagram: boxes represent functions, arrows represent inputs, outputs, controls, and mechanisms as described in Ref. [37]

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Fig. 3

The IDEF0 diagram for performing activity A0: environmental characterization of manufacturing processes

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Fig. 4

IDEF0 diagram describing activities for environmental characterization of manufacturing processes

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Fig. 5

The various stages of an LCA. This figure is taken from Ref. [12]. ISO. This material is reproduced from ISO 14040:2006 with permission of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) on behalf of the International Organization for Standardization. The complete standard can be purchased from ANSI at https://webstore.ansi.org. All rights reserved.

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Fig. 6

The IDEF0 diagram for performing activity B0: perform LCA

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Fig. 7

IDEF0 diagram describing activities for an LCA

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Fig. 8

IDEF0 diagram describing subactivities for running an inventory analysis

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Fig. 9

IDEF0 diagram describing activities for creating LCI data using the UMP format

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Fig. 10

A Venn diagram illustrating the mapping between the ASTM E3012-16 UMP format and the ecoSpold2 format

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Fig. 11

ASTM E3012 graphical representation of the milling UMP

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Fig. 12

Representation of inputs and outputs of a milling process in the ASTM E3012-16 format and the corresponding ecospold2 format

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Fig. 14

The ecoSpold2 milling model automatically generated from the ASTM E3012-16 model

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