Research Papers

A Generic and Efficient Approach to Determining Locations and Orientations of Complex Standard and Worn Wheels for Cutter Flute Grinding Using Characteristics of Virtual Grinding Curves

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohsen Habibi

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
Concordia University,
Montreal H3G 1M8, QC, Canada
e-mail: mohs_hab@encs.concordia.ca

Zezhong C. Chen

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
Concordia University,
Montreal H3G 1M8, QC, Canada
e-mail: zcchen@encs.concordia.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 10, 2016; final manuscript received November 30, 2016; published online January 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Y. B. Guo.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(4), 041018 (Jan 27, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1374; doi: 10.1115/1.4035421 History: Received July 10, 2016; Revised November 30, 2016

As an important feature of cutting tools, flutes determine rake faces of their cutting edges, their rigidity, chip breaking, and chip space. In industry, flutes are often ground with standard wheels of simple shape (e.g., 1A1 or 1V1 wheels), resulting in flutes without much variation. To make flutes of more complex shape, standard wheels of complex shape (e.g., 1B1, 1E1, 1F1, and 4Y1 wheels), compared to the current ones, should be used. Unfortunately, current commercial software cannot calculate the locations and orientations of these wheels; this is why they are not used to machine flutes. Moreover, grinding wheels are gradually worn out in use, and the flutes lose accuracy accordingly. Therefore, locations and orientations of the worn wheels should be recalculated or compensated in machining; however, no such technique is currently available. To address this challenge, a generic and efficient approach to determining the locations and orientations of complex standard and worn wheels for cutter flute grinding is proposed in this work. First, a parametric equation of the generic wheel surface and its kinematic equation in five-axis flute grinding are rendered. Second, virtual grinding curves are proposed and defined to directly represent the relationships between wheel location and orientation and the flute profile in a geometric way. Then, the characteristics of the virtual grinding curves are investigated and formulated, and a new model of the generic wheel location and orientation is established. Compared to the existing comparative model, this model significantly increases solution liability and computation efficiency. Finally, three practical cases are studied and discussed to validate this approach. This approach can be used to make flutes of more complex shape and can increase flute accuracy by compensating the locations and orientations of worn wheels in machining.

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Fig. 1

Standard grinding wheels of complex shape for flute grinding

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Fig. 2

The five geometric parameters of a flute and the flute shape

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Fig. 3

A generic grinding wheel that can represent standard and worn wheels

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Fig. 4

The kinematic chain of the five-axis flute grinding process

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Fig. 5

(a) The virtual grinding curve on the section (zT=0) in the tool coordinate system corresponding to the wheel circle (zg=0) in the wheel coordinate system and (b) the virtual grinding curves corresponding the wheel circles and the flute on this section

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Fig. 6

A family of the curves Ci by mapping the wheel circles on the section (zT=0) in the tool coordinate system and the flute profile that is the envelope of the family of curves E

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Fig. 7

The 3D model of a worn grinding wheel and the plot of its curved profile

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Fig. 8

Six 3D solid models of the flutes ground using the worn wheel in the optimized locations and orientations and the flute parameters measured on these models

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Fig. 9

The flute profiles ground by the 1A1, 1B1, 1F1, and worn wheels

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Fig. 10

The models of the standard 1A1 and the worn 1A1 grinding wheels

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Fig. 11

Profiles of flutes ground by (a) the standard 1A1 grinding wheel, (b) the worn wheel without compensation, and (c) the worn wheel with compensation

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Fig. 12

(a) WALTER HELITRONIC POWER five-axis CNC grinding machine tool, (b) final ground end mill, and (c) schematic view of the part




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