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Research Papers

Laser Metal Deposition Additive Manufacturing of TiC Reinforced Inconel 625 Composites: Influence of the Additive TiC Particle and Its Starting Size

[+] Author and Article Information
Dongdong Gu

College of Materials Science and Technology;Institute of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing),
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: dongdonggu@nuaa.edu.cn

Sainan Cao, Kaijie Lin

College of Materials Science and Technology;Institute of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing),
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 2, 2016; final manuscript received October 4, 2016; published online November 9, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(4), 041014 (Nov 09, 2016) (13 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1080; doi: 10.1115/1.4034934 History: Received February 02, 2016; Revised October 04, 2016

In this study, laser metal deposition (LMD) additive manufacturing was used to deposit the pure Inconel 625 alloy and the TiC/Inconel 625 composites with different starting sizes of TiC particles, respectively. The influence of the additive TiC particle and its original size on the constitutional phases, microstructural features, and mechanical properties of the LMD-processed parts was studied. The incorporation of TiC particles significantly changed the prominent texture of Ni–Cr matrix phase from (200) to (100). The bottom and side parts of each deposited track showed mostly the columnar dendrites, while the cellular dendrites were prevailing in the microstructure of the central zone of the deposited track. As the nano-TiC particles were added, more columnar dendrites were observed in the solidified molten pool. The incorporation of nano-TiC particles induced the formation of the significantly refined columnar dendrites with the secondary dendrite arms developed considerably well. With the micro-TiC particles added, the columnar dendrites were relatively coarsened and highly degenerated, with the secondary dendrite growth being entirely suppressed. The cellular dendrites were obviously refined by the additive TiC particles. When the nano-TiC particles were added to reinforce the Inconel 625, the significantly improved microhardness, tensile property, and wear property were obtained without sacrificing the ductility of the composites.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Particle size distribution profiles of (a) Inconel 625 and (b) micro-TiC powder; Transmission electron microscopy micrograph of nano-TiC particles (c)

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Fig. 2

Geometry of samples for tensile tests to measure tensile properties of LMD-processed parts

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Fig. 3

XRD spectra of LMD-processed pure Inconel 625 and TiC/Inconel 625 composites with the TiC reinforcing particles having different initial sizes

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Fig. 4

OM images showing the low-magnification cross-sectional microstructures of LMD-processed Inconel 625 and TiC/Inconel 625 composites with TiC particles of different initial sizes: (a) unreinforced Inconel 625, (b) Inconel 625 + nano-TiC, and (c) Inconel 625 + micro-TiC

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Fig. 5

FE-SEM images showing the microstructures of columnar dendrites in LMD-processed Inconel 625 and TiC/Inconel 625 composites with TiC particles of different initial sizes: (a) unreinforced Inconel 625, (c) Inconel 625 + nano-TiC, and (e) Inconel 625 + micro-TiC. Local magnifications of microstructures in the rectangle region of (a), (c), and (e) are shown in (b), (d), and (f), respectively.

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Fig. 6

FE-SEM images showing the cellular microstructures in LMD-processed Inconel 625 and TiC/Inconel 625 composites with TiC particles of different initial sizes: (a) unreinforced Inconel 625, (b) Inconel 625 + nano-TiC, and (c) Inconel 625 + micro-TiC

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Fig. 7

FE-SEM images showing the microstructural features of TiC reinforcing particles in LMD-processed TiC/Inconel 625 composites with different original sizes of TiC particles: (a) nano-TiC and (b) micro-TiC. High-magnification FE-SEM images showing the typical morphologies of TiC reinforcing particles: (c) inside the grain in Fig. 7(a), and (d) on the grain boundary in Fig. 7(a).

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Fig. 8

(a) The established three-dimensional finite element model and multitrack scan strategy during LMD process. Temperature distributions during LMD process on cross sections of molten pools using different initial sizes of TiC particles: (b) unreinforced Inconel 625, (c) Inconel 625 + nano-TiC, and (d) Inconel 625 + micro-TiC. The simulation position locates in the center of the depositing track (point 1 in Fig. 8(a)).

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Fig. 9

Temperature distribution profiles within the molten pool during LMD processing of Inconel 625 and TiC/Inconel 625 composites with various TiC particle sizes: (a) along the Y-axis (at X = 4.5 mm, Z = 0 mm) and (b) along the Z-axis (at point 1) on the top surface. Variations in the maximum temperature gradient within the molten pool during LMD processing of Inconel 625 and TiC/Inconel 625 composites with different TiC particle sizes: (c) along the Y-axis (at X = 4.5 mm, Z = 0 mm) and (d) along the Z-axis (at point 1).

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Fig. 10

(a) Variations in temperature with time at the center point of the depositing track (point 1, Fig. 8(a)) using different sizes of TiC particles. (b) Variations in maximum cooling rate during LMD with the sizes of TiC particles.

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Fig. 11

Microhardness of LMD-processed Inconel 625 and TiC/Inconel 625 composites with different TiC particle sizes

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Fig. 12

Tensile properties (strength and elongation) of LMD-processed Inconel 625 and TiC/Inconel 625 composites with different TiC particle sizes

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Fig. 13

Coefficient of friction (a) and resultant wear rate (b) of LMD-processed Inconel 625 and TiC/Inconel 625 composites with different TiC particle sizes

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