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Research Papers

Analytical Force Modeling of Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw Machining With Application to SiC Monocrystal Wafer Processing

[+] Author and Article Information
Shujuan Li

School of Mechanical and
Instrument Engineering,
Xi'an University of Technology,
5 South Jinhua Road,
Xi'an 710048, Shaanxi, China
e-mail: shujuanli@xaut.edu.cn

Aofei Tang

School of Mechanical and
Instrument Engineering,
Xi'an University of Technology,
5 South Jinhua Road,
Xi'an 710048, Shaanxi, China
e-mail: aofeitang@126.com

Yong Liu

School of Mechanical and
Instrument Engineering,
Xi'an University of Technology,
5 South Jinhua Road,
Xi'an 710048, Shaanxi, China
e-mail: yongliu@xaut.edu.cn

Jiabin Wang

School of Mechanical and
Instrument Engineering,
Xi'an University of Technology,
5 South Jinhua Road,
Xi'an 710048, Shaanxi, China
e-mail: wang_ticktack@outlook.com

Dan Cui

School of Mechanical and
Instrument Engineering,
Xi'an University of Technology,
5 South Jinhua Road,
Xi'an 710048, Shaanxi, China
e-mail: dancui@163.com

Robert G. Landers

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Missouri University of
Science and Technology,
Rolla, MO 65409–0050
e-mail: landersr@mst.edu

Manuscript received April 28, 2016; final manuscript received September 5, 2016; published online October 18, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Z. J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(4), 041003 (Oct 18, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1250; doi: 10.1115/1.4034792 History: Received April 28, 2016; Revised September 05, 2016

Free abrasive diamond wire saw machining is often used to cut hard and brittle materials, especially for wafers in the semiconductor and optoelectronics industries. Wire saws, both free and fixed abrasive, have excellent flexibility, as compared to inner circular saws, outer saws, and ribbon saws, as they produce a narrower kerf, lower cutting forces, and less material waste. However, fixed abrasive wire saw machining is being considered more and more due to its potential for increased productivity and the fact that it is more environmentally friendly as it does not use special coolants that must be carefully disposed. The cutting forces generated during the wire saw process strongly affect the quality of the produced parts. However, the relationship between these forces and the process parameters has only been explored qualitatively. Based on analyzing the forces generated from the chip formation and friction of a single abrasive, this study derives an analytical cutting force model for the wire saw machining process. The analytical model explains qualitative observations seen in the literature describing the relationship between the cutting forces and the wafer feed rate, wire velocity, and contact length between the wire and wafer. Extensive experimental work is conducted to validate the analytical force model. Silicon carbide (SiC) monocrystal, which is employed extensively in the fields of microelectronics and optoelectronics and is known to be particularly challenging to process due to its extremely high hardness and brittleness, is used as the material in these experimental studies. The results show that the analytical force model can predict the cutting forces when wire saw machining SiC monocrystal wafers with average errors between the experimental and predicted normal and tangential forces of 9.98% and 12.1%, respectively.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of chip generation process for hard and brittle materials [17]

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Fig. 2

Schematic of chip formation in wire saw machining

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Fig. 3

SEM photograph of a new wire

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Fig. 6

Schematic of cutting forces acting on a single abrasive: (a) side view and (b) top view

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Fig. 7

Schematic of cross section of wire and wafer: (a) side view, (b) A–A section view, and (c) zoomed in view of cutting wafer

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Fig. 8

Wire saw machine schematic

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Fig. 9

Wire saw velocity profile during wafer processing

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Fig. 10

Schematics illustrating contact between wire and wafer: (a) number of abrasives in contact with wafer, (b) depth of cut and area of material removed for a rectangle, and (c) depth of cut and area of material removed for a wafer

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Fig. 11

Slip line model of wedge type tool indentation [24]

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Fig. 12

Schematics illustrating contact between wire saw and rectangular part

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Fig. 13

Schematic of interaction between wire saw and wafer during processing

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Fig. 14

Wire velocity and roller angular position time histories for various commanded wire velocities Vs = 7.8 × 104 mm/min, Vs = 9.6 × 104 mm/min, Vs = 1.14 × 105 mm/min

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Fig. 15

Photographs of wire–wafer contact for various wafer radii. A white line is drawn over wire for clarity. (a) R = 35 mm, φ = 16.8 deg, Lc = 10.3 mm, (b) R = 30 mm, φ = 22.1 deg, Lc = 11.6 mm, (c) R = 22 mm, φ = 29.8 deg, Lc = 11.4 mm, and (d) R = 13 mm, φ = 28.3 deg, Lc = 6.52 mm.

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Fig. 16

Schematic of experimental setup to measure contact angle and contact length. A white line is drawn over wire for clarity (a) experimental diagram and (b) zoom in of wire bend angle.

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Fig. 17

Wafer radius during wire saw cutting process for various combinations of wire saw velocity and wafer feed rate (Nw = 12 rpm, T = 0.2 MPa)

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Fig. 18

Contact angle during wire saw cutting process for various wire saw velocities and wafer feed rates (Nw = 12 rpm, T = 0.2 MPa)

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Fig. 19

Contact length during wire saw cutting process for various wire saw velocities and wafter feed rates (Nw = 12 rpm, T = 0.2 MPa)

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Fig. 20

Tangential cutting force for Vs = 1.0 × 105 mm/min, Vx = 0.0375 mm/min, Nw = 12 rpm, and T = 0.2 MPa

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Fig. 21

Normal (top) and tangential (bottom) cutting forces for validation experiments with Nw = 12 rpm and T = 0.2 MPa. Solid lines denote model and markers denote experimental data.

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Fig. 22

Images of new and worn wires (Vs = 9.6 × 104 mm/min, Vx = 0.05 mm/min, Nw = 12 rpm, T = 0.2 MPa) (a) new wire and (b) wire worn

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